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去往天堂的路上铺满吉丽花

(2020-06-19 10:58:08) 下一个

五)去往天堂的路上铺满吉丽花

苏格兰著名历史小说家及诗人沃尔特.斯各特准男爵(Sir Walter Scott, 1
7711832)于1820发表了《苏格兰边区歌谣集》(Minstrelsy of the 
Scottish Border),书中收集了许多著名的苏格兰民谣。此书在英国和
欧洲大陆都具有影响力,为他今后成为诗人和小说家打下了坚实的基
础。近年来,《苏格兰边区歌谣集》被誉为有史以来最激动人心的民
谣收藏 
其中一首《文员桑德斯》(Clerk Saunders)于上世纪70年代起被诸多
民歌手重新演绎,再度掀起热潮。现将歌词翻译如下:
文员桑德斯和梅玛格丽特
走过绿色的花园;
落在两者之间的
是悲伤而沉重的爱。
Clerk Saunders and may Margaret
Walked ower yon garden green;        (注:ower yon =  over that
And sad and heavy was the love
That fell thir twa between.                    (注: thir twa = these two)
 
一张床,一张床,文员桑德斯说,
一张属于你和我的床!
不要,请不要,梅玛格丽特说,
直到我们结婚那天。
‘A bed, a bed,’ Clerk Saunders said,
‘A bed for you and me!’
‘Fye na, fye na,’ said may Margaret,
‘Till anes we married be.                           (注:anes = once
 
因为我的七个胆大的兄弟可能进来,
拿着燃烧的火把;
他们会说:我们只有一个姊妹,
瞧她和一个骑士在一起!
‘For in may come my seven bauld brothers,       (注:bauld = bold
Wi’ torches burning bright;
They’ll say,—'We hae but ae sister,            
And behold she’s wi a knight!’
 
然后从我的剑鞘抽出剑,
慢慢抬起销钉;
你必须发誓,信守誓言。
永远不让文员桑德斯进来。
‘Then take the sword frae my scabbard,          (注:frae = from
And slowly lift the pin;
And you may swear, and save your aith.          (注:aith = oath
Ye never let Clerk Saunders in.
 
请在手里握着一块方巾,
两个美好的夜晚不要闲下来,
你必须发誓,信守誓言,
自昨晚起你就没见过我。
’And take a napkin in your hand,
And tie up baith your bonny e’en,             (注: baith = both, e’en  = evening)
And you may swear, and save your aith,
Ye saw me na since late yestreen.’            (注: na = not  yestreen = last evening
 
 大约午夜时分,
当他们睡着了
她的七个兄弟走进来,
拿着烧得通红的火把。
It was about the midnight hour,
When they asleep were laid,
When in and came her seven brothers,
Wi’ torches burning red.
 
她的七个兄弟走进来,
拿着烧得通红的火把;
他们说,我们只有一个姊妹,
瞧,她和一个骑士躺在一起!
When in and came her seven brothers,
Wi’ torches burning bright:
They said, ‘We hae but ae sister,
And behold her lying with a knight!’
 
他们中的第一个出去了,说,
我持剑必使他死!
他们中的第二个出去了,说,
他的父亲不比他强!
Then out and spake the first o’ them,               (注:spake = spoke  
‘I bear the sword shall gar him die!’                (注: gar =  make
And out and spake the second o’ them,
‘His father has nae mair than he!’                      (注:mair =  no more 
 
他们中的第三个出去了,说,
我认为他俩是亲密的恋人!
他们中的第四个出去了,说,
他们这样相爱好多次了!
And out and spake the third o’ them,
‘I wot that they are lovers dear!’                      (注:wot = what
And out and spake the fourth o’ them,
‘They hae been in love this mony a year!’          (注: mony =  many
 
他们中的第五个出去了,说,
拆散真爱是大罪过!
他们中的第六个出去了,说,
杀死一个熟睡的男人真可耻!
Then out and spake the fifth o’ them,
‘It were great sin true love to twain!
And out and spake the sixth o’ them,
‘It were shame to slay a sleeping man!’
 
 
他们中的第七个拿着手枪上前,
一言不发。
但是在文员桑德斯俊美的身体上
留下了一个亮棕色的条纹。
Then up and gat the seventh o’ them,              ( 注:gat = a pistol)
And never a word spake he;
But he has striped his bright brown brand
Out through Clerk Saunders’ fair bodye.   (注:bodye = body)
 
文员桑德斯动了一下,玛格丽特翻身
躺在他怀里,仍在酣睡;
在他们之间
那晚是悲伤而寂静的。
(Clerk Saunders he started, and Margaret she turned
Into his arms as asleep she lay;
And sad and silent was the night
That was atween thir twae.             (注:atween thir twae  = between these two
 
他们静静躺着睡得很香
直到天现曙光;
她温柔地对他说,
是时候了,亲爱的,你该离开了。
And they lay still and sleeped sound
Until the day began to daw;
And kindly to him she did say,
‘It is time, true love, you were awa’.’    (注:awa = away
 
但是他仍静静躺着,睡得很香,
尽管太阳开始光芒四射。
她看着自己和墙壁之间,
隔着的是他的麻木沉睡的夜晚。
But he lay still, and sleeped sound,
Albeit the sun began to sheen;
She looked atween her and the wa’,         (注:wa’ = wall
And dull and drowsie were his e’en.
 
 
她亲爱的父亲进来了,
说,让你的悲伤过去吧:
我要把尸体运去土葬,
我会回来安慰你的。
 Then in and came her father dear;
Said,—'Let a’ your mourning be:
I’ll carry the dead corpse to the clay,
And I’ll come back and comfort thee.’
 
好好安慰你的七个儿子吧;
我永远不需要慰藉:
我不傻也没有任何一丁点的不诚实
他昨晚在闺房里陪着我。
‘Comfort weel your seven sons;         (注: weel = well
For comforted will I never be:
I ween ’twas neither knave nor loon      (注: I little it was dishonest nor foolish)
Was in the bower last night wi’ me.’
 
 
叮叮当当的钟声穿过小镇,
把死者的尸体运到土里埋葬
文员桑德斯站在梅玛格丽特的窗户旁,
听我说,那是在天亮前一小时。
The clinking bell gaed through the town,     (注:  gaed =  to go 
To carry the dead corse to the clay;     (注: corse = corpse
And Clerk Saunders stood at may Margaret’s window,
I wot, an hour before the day.                           
 
玛格丽特,你正在睡吗?他说,
还是你现在已经醒了?
把我的信念和真相再次给我吧,
听我说,真爱,我来了。
‘Are ye sleeping, Margaret?’ he says,
‘Or are ye waking presentlie?             (注:presentlie = at the present time
Give me my faith and troth again,
I wot, true love, I gied to thee.’
 
你永远得不到信念和真相,
我俩的真情也无法成双成对,
除非你来到我的闺房
亲吻我的脸颊和下巴。
‘Your faith and troth ye sall never get,
Nor our true love sall never twin,
Until ye come within my bower,
And kiss me cheik and chin.’
 
玛格丽特,我的嘴好冷。
现在,带着泥土的气味。
如果我亲吻你那可爱的嘴,
你的寿命不会久长。
‘My mouth it is full cold, Margaret,
It has the smell, now, of the ground;
And if I kiss thy comely mouth,
Thy days of life will not be lang.          注: lang = long
 
 
哦,公鸡在夜半快乐地啼叫,
听我说,鸣禽们在告知白天的到来。
把我的信念和真相再次给我吧,
让我顺路带走。
’O, cocks are crowing a merry midnight,
I wot the wild fowls are boding day;
Give me my faith and troth again,
And let me fare me on my way.’
 
‘你永远得不到信念和真相,
我俩的真情也无法成双成对,
除非你告诉我,那些死在旅途中的女人
我想知道,她们都变成了什么样?
‘Thy faith and troth thou sall na get,
And our true love sall never twin,
Until ye tell what comes of women,
I wot, who die in strong traivelling?
 
她们的床铺在高高的天上,
摆在上帝的脚边,
四周布满了吉丽花(注:康乃馨);
听我说,多么美好的陪伴。
’Their beds are made in the heavens high,
Down at the foot of our good lord’s knee,
Weel set about wi’ gillyflowers;
I wot, sweet company for to see.

(康乃馨)

 
哦,公鸡在夜半快乐地啼叫,
听我说,鸣禽们在告知白天的到来。
天堂的诗篇将很快被唱响,
我,在这之前,会消失。
‘O, cocks are crowing a merry midnight,
I wot the wild fowl are boding day;
The psalms of heaven will soon be sung,
And I, ere now, will be missed away.’   (注:ere = before      
 
然后她拿了一根水晶棒,
在上面附上真相。
从窗边递出去给他,
伴随着无数次悲叹和呻吟。
Then she has ta’en a crystal wand,                 (注:   ta’en  = taken)
And she has stroken her troth thereon;
She has given it him out at the shot-window,
Wi’ mony a sad sigh, and heavy groan.
 
谢谢你,玛格丽特,谢谢你,玛格丽特;
是的,我衷心感谢你。
死人总会来找活着的人的,
放心吧,玛格丽特,我会来找你的。
‘I thank ye, Marg’ret, I thank ye, Marg’ret;
And aye I thank ye heartilie;
Gin ever the dead come for the quick,           (注: Gin ever  =  by ever
Be sure, Mag’ret, I’ll come for thee.’
 
仅穿着紧身裤、鞋子和长袍,
她翻过墙,跟着他,
来到了绿色森林里,
却再也找不见他。
It’s hosen and shoon, and gown alone,       (注:shoon = shoe
She climb’d the wall, and followed him,
Until she came to the green forest,
And there she lost the sight o’ him.
 
桑德斯 , 你的头旁边有空位吗?
脚边有没有多余的地方?
桑德斯,你的身边有没有多余的空间,
一个容我安然入眠的地方?
‘Is there ony room at your head, Saunders?    (注: ony  =  One 
Is there ony room at your feet?
Is there ony room at your side, Saunders,
Where fain, fain I wad sleep?’                        (注:fain  =  with pleasure
 
玛格丽特,我的头旁边没有空位,
脚边没有多余的地方;
我的床很低很低,
我睡在一群饥饿的蠕虫之间。
‘There’s nae room at my head, Marg’ret,
There’s nae room at my feet;
My bed it is full lowly now,
Amang the hungry worms I sleep.
 
我躺在冰冷的盒子里,
盖着裹尸布;
露珠很快落下来
比我的安息之地还湿。
‘Cauld mould is my covering now,       (注:Cauld =  cold 
But and my winding-sheet;
The dew it falls nae sooner down           
Than my resting-place is weet.            (注:   weet  = wet
 
但是用美丽的桦树编一个魔棒,
放在我的胸前
在我的坟头流下眼泪,
让我的灵魂得到安息。
’But plait a wand o’ bonnie birk,
And lay it on my breast;
And shed a tear upon my grave,
And wish my saul gude rest.
 
美丽的玛格丽特,世间罕有的玛格丽特,
玛格丽特,亲爱的,
你会爱上另一个男人,
千万不要像爱我那样爱他。
‘And fair Marg’ret, and rare Marg’ret,
And Marg’ret, o’ veritie,                (注: o’ veritie = truly
Gin ere ye love another man,
Ne’er love him as ye did me.’
 
然后他飘起来,与奶白色的公鸡一起,
飘起来,与灰发人一起;
她的爱人消失在空气中,
她哭了起来。
Then up and crew the milk-white cock,
And up and crew the gray;
Her lover vanish’d in the air,
And she gaed weeping away.
 
这是一个关于“野性和美丽”的爱情故事,语言清新流畅,散发着平民化
的气息。文员桑德斯成为兄弟嫉妒的受害者,男女主人公的身份和地位
的悬殊是残酷暴力的借口 - 这是一种常见的民谣主题。具有讽刺意味的
是,在某些版本的《文员桑德斯》中,玛格丽特在诅咒她的兄弟时说,
被他杀死的桑德斯实际上是伯爵的继承人。与大多数悲剧情歌不同的是,
女主人公玛格丽特没有选择自杀,而是苟活下去并肝肠寸断地哀悼自
己的爱人。
苏格兰民谣富含超自然元素,以《文员桑德斯》为例,男主人公遇害后,
他的鬼魂来探望玛格丽特,想要探知非正常死亡的真相。他明知死人是埋
在冰冷的棺材里的,身上一条裹尸布,与一群饥饿的蠕虫睡在一起,却
安慰爱人:女人死后,她们的床铺在高高的天上,摆在上帝的脚边,四
周布满了吉丽花,一副温馨的场面。他希望玛格丽特不要长久地沉浸于
悲哀之中,将来会爱上别的男人,同时又自私地乞求玛格丽特不要像爱
我那样爱他。短短几句真情告白,已让读者泪湿春衫。也许在文学
创作中,痛苦是最伟大美丽的,爱情悲剧似乎总比喜剧更震撼人心。
许多脍炙人口的民谣后来被早期的欧洲移民传唱到了北美新大陆,在新的
土壤里发生演变。当代音乐家们在收集整理这些嫁接于北美的民谣时发
现了一个现象:苏格兰民谣中的超自然元素在向美国的传播中被省略或
合理化了,原因在于美国本土没有暴力、温柔和死后复活的传说。

 

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