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锡器与健康

(2009-06-27 00:19:09) 下一个
来源:清谈天地 www.talkskyland.com

前几天的一个帖子,承蒙懒虫的帮忙,所学非浅,知道使用锡器,有很多的妙处:

锡是比较安全的一种金属:“古时候,人们常在井底放上锡块,净化水质。在日本宫廷中,精心酿制的御酒都是用锡器作为盛酒的器皿。它具有储茶色不变,盛酒冬暖夏凉,淳厚清冽之传。锡茶壶泡茶特别清香,用锡杯喝酒石酸清冽爽口,锡瓶插花不易枯萎。”

“锡是排列在白金,黄金及银后面的第四种贵金属,它富有光泽、无毒、不易氧化变色,具有很好的杀菌、净化、保鲜效用。生活中常用于食品保鲜、罐头内层的防腐膜等。”

呵呵,好东西呢,过去的牙膏皮就是锡做的,我小时候会拿去货郎担上换糖。现在的香烟也用锡纸保护,还有很多烧烤也用锡箔,看来应该不会有什么危害吧?


尽管如此,锡这类的重金属合金做容器或包装,对于人体健康可能造成的影响,还是不应该掉以轻心的。

因为中国自古就有很多吞金自杀的先例,近代又有不少使用铝锅炒菜造成老年人痴呆和误食铅造成小儿大脑发育畸形的个案。

那么,先看看
洋大人们是怎么说的:

Pewteris an alloy consisting of mostly tin and it is the fourth most preciousmetal. It also has very small amounts of antimony and copper which isadded mainly for strength and/or color. The percentage of tin can varyfrom manufacturer to manufacturer, but most often you will find at theleast 91% tin and the rest in antimony and copper.              

Europeanpewter has a minimum tin content of 92% although many of thesemanufacturers raise this to 95% and some even to 97% tin. The higherthe tin content, the more silver the final color.              

Pewter dates back to the Roman days and was only something the rich and wealthy could afford.

Despite contrary beliefs today's pewter is perfectly safe to eat and drink from. Modern pewter contains no leadas it once did. How can you tell if your pewter items have lead inthem? This is a question that gets asked quite often. Read on to findout...

The result of lead in pewter is agrayish-black patina on the surface of the item. The amount ofdarkening and type of oxidation can vary depending on the type ofenvironment the items are left in.

Mostoften, people will leave this patina on because it creates an antiquelook that many manufacturers try to simulate today. If you should tryto remove it, the layers underneath are then exposed which will in timeonce again corrode and the patina comes back. In all actuality, thepatina layer that forms on lead based pewter acts as a protective layerand should really not
be removed.

Lead free pewter can also oxidize over time, but it takes much longer and the color is usually more grayish compared
to the lead based pewter which is a darker gray or black in color.

也就是说,以前的锡器,根据厂商的不同,锡含量差异很大,为了增加硬度和颜色,多少都添加铜、锑和一种有对人体有害的重金属铅,而铅的氧化,就会在锡器的表面,形成现代的收藏家们趋之若鹜的一种叫做包浆的灰褐色的氧化层。而现在欧洲生产的锡器按照行业标准,基本上都不应该再含有铅。

可是, 事实又如何呢?

Startingcenturies ago, pewter pieces were branded or etched into the finishedproducts to show that it was a quality product. The mark usuallyconsisted of the mark of the city combined with the maker's mark. Astime went on, the pewter makers started to use their own symbols andmarks. It was at this point the guilds stepped in and brought forthrules and regulations for the stamps.

Alloyregulations were put forth because the amount of tin in the productmade a difference in the quality. Certain quality marks were put intoeffect for good, better and best.

Two of these known high quality marks are the crown with the rose and the ore angel Michael holding a sword in one hand and a balance in the other which dates back to the 18th century.

Pewtermanufacturers today still use these old marks along with theircompany's marks. The angel mark has never been controlled or regulatedso you will find many pewter manufacturers today that continue to usethis traditional stamp regardless of whether or not their product isreally a "high quality" product. Some of these products that bear theangel mark may only have a thin plating of pewter or very low tincontent and are
usually referred to as decorative or ornamental type pewter.  

Tocombat this, in 1973, the pewter guild came out with their hand-madeseal as a representation of high quality pewter. Some manufacturerstoday do not even use a quality stamp other than their own company logoor seal such as SKS Zinn, a
leading high quality pewter manufacturer in Germany.

So,although policies and rules have been tried to be put forth, they arenot always followed when it comes to identifying the quality of thepewter. The best advice we can give you is to ask what the pewtercontent is and make sure you are buying from a reputable company. TheFDA requires that the tin content be at least 92% in order to bequalified as "food safe" and you will find some companies go evenbeyond this point with up to 97% pewter. Even though the pewter contentmay be where it should be, who makes the products is also extremelyimportant as we all know that quality can vary between differentcompanies.

尽管美国食品与药品检验总署规定了锡器含锡量的下限是92%,也有一些欧洲的厂商自觉地将含锡量提高到95%和97%以上。可是仍然有一些不法商贩,挂羊头,卖狗肉!

那么咱中国的情况又如何呢,最近好像也大量出口锡器。历史上也有大量的茶叶,装在大大的锡罐里面,或翻山越岭,或飘洋过海,走遍了地球上的每一个角落。

可是,中国无锡,这个城市,少说也有,不止2000年的历史了吧?

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