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Long shadow of sin

(2015-06-23 15:48:33) 下一个

[Inspiration] Original sin: long shadow [复制链接]

   

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本帖最后由 LongLeeLu 于 2015-6-23 14:47 编辑

Slavery’s Long Shadow  by Paul Krugman
JUNE 22, 2015
America is a much less racist nation than it used to be, and I’m not just talking about the still remarkable fact that an African-American occupies the White House. The raw institutional racism that prevailed before the civil rights movement ended Jim Crow is gone, although subtler discrimination persists. Individual attitudes have changed, too, dramatically in some cases. For example, as recently as the 1980s half of Americans opposed interracial marriage, a position now held by only a tiny minority.

Yet racial hatred is still a potent force in our society, as we’ve just been reminded to our horror. And I’m sorry to say this, but the racial divide is still a defining feature of our political economy, the reason America is unique among advanced nations in its harsh treatment of the less fortunate and its willingness to tolerate unnecessary suffering among its citizens.

Of course, saying this brings angry denials from many conservatives, so let me try to be cool and careful here, and cite some of the overwhelming evidence for the continuing centrality of race in our national politics.

My own understanding of the role of race in U.S. exceptionalism was largely shaped by two academic papers.

The first, by the political scientist Larry Bartels, analyzed the move of the white working class away from Democrats, a move made famous in Thomas Frank’s “What’s the Matter With Kansas?” Mr. Frank argued that working-class whites were being induced to vote against their own interests by the right’s exploitation of cultural issues. But Mr. Bartels showed that the working-class turn against Democrats wasn’t a national phenomenon — it was entirely restricted to the South, where whites turned overwhelmingly Republican after the passage of the Civil Rights Act and Richard Nixon’s adoption of the so-called Southern strategy.

And this party-switching, in turn, was what drove the rightward swing of American politics after 1980. Race made Reaganism possible. And to this day Southern whites overwhelmingly vote Republican, to the tune of 85 or even 90 percent in the deep South.

The second paper, by the economists Alberto Alesina, Edward Glaeser, and Bruce Sacerdote, was titled “Why Doesn’t the United States Have a European-style Welfare State?” Its authors — who are not, by the way, especially liberal — explored a number of hypotheses, but eventually concluded that race is central, because in America programs that help the needy are all too often seen as programs that help Those People: “Within the United States, race is the single most important predictor of support for welfare. America’s troubled race relations are clearly a major reason for the absence of an American welfare state.”

Now, that paper was published in 2001, and you might wonder if things have changed since then. Unfortunately, the answer is that they haven’t, as you can see by looking at how states are implementing — or refusing to implement — Obamacare.

For those who haven’t been following this issue, in 2012 the Supreme Court gave individual states the option, if they so chose, of blocking the Affordable Care Act’s expansion of Medicaid, a key part of the plan to provide health insurance to lower-income Americans. But why would any state choose to exercise that option? After all, states were being offered a federally-funded program that would provide major benefits to millions of their citizens, pour billions into their economies, and help support their health-care providers. Who would turn down such an offer?

The answer is, 22 states at this point, although some may eventually change their minds. And what do these states have in common? Mainly, a history of slaveholding: Only one former member of the Confederacy has expanded Medicaid, and while a few Northern states are also part of the movement, more than 80 percent of the population in Medicaid-refusing America lives in states that practiced slavery before the Civil War.

Continue reading the main story

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RobbyStlrC'd
1 day ago
I posted this text (sublinear) a few days ago, on one of the (many) NYT's Charlotte, S.C. church shooting articles. It probably fits here...



DH
1 day ago
Thank you, Paul. This is one of the more brilliant, and important commentaries I've seen on the Internet. And lots of people have been...



Ted Gemberling
1 day ago
The new racism is basically libertarianism. This is a subtle point, because it would be wrong to say that all libertarians are racist. In...

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And it’s not just health reform: a history of slavery is a strong predictor of everything from gun control (or rather its absence), to low minimum wages and hostility to unions, to tax policy.

So will it always be thus? Is America doomed to live forever politically in the shadow of slavery?

I’d like to think not. For one thing, our country is growing more ethnically diverse, and the old black-white polarity is slowly becoming outdated. For another, as I said, we really have become much less racist, and in general a much more tolerant society on many fronts. Over time, we should expect to see the influence of dog-whistle politics decline.

But that hasn’t happened yet. Every once in a while you hear a chorus of voices declaring that race is no longer a problem in America. That’s wishful thinking; we are still haunted by our nation’s original sin.

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奥巴马:即使不说黑鬼了,种族歧视仍深入美国DNA

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上周五在旧金山,奥巴马走出空军一号。笑星马克·马龙采访了总统,并录制成播客节目,于本周一播出。

南卡罗来纳州一座教堂的九名黑人教徒遭枪杀几天后,奥巴马总统表示,奴隶制的遗毒仍在美国人的生活中“投下长长的阴影”,他说,即使人们不在公众场合说“黑鬼”这个词,美国社会中的种族主义也依然存在。

在一个有关种族问题的访谈中,奥巴马谈到很多事情,包括他作为一个黑人父亲、白人母亲的儿子所经历的成长。奥巴马坚称,在他度过的这几十年中,种族关系无疑得到了改善。但他也说,种族主义仍然深深植根于美国社会。

“奴隶制的遗毒、吉姆·克劳(Jim Crow),以及在我们的所有制度中都存在的歧视,投下了长长的阴影,而且仍然在我们的DNA里,被传递给下一代。”他在接受马克·马龙(Marc Maron)的播客“WTF”访谈时说,该节目于本周一播出。“这个问题并未治愈。而且这不只是在公众场合说‘黑鬼’很不礼貌的问题。那不是种族主义是否仍然存在的衡量标准。”

他还说,“社会不会在一夜之间完全抹去之前两、三百年发生的一切。”

在第二个任期里,奥巴马在种族问题上更加畅所欲言,部分原因是过去几年里发生了一些带有种族歧视色彩的事件。佛罗里达州黑人少年特雷沃恩·马丁(Trayvon Martin)遭枪杀,以及几起警察枪击事件引起的抗议活动,促使奥巴马更多地反思他自己以及这个国家的种族身份。

在长达一小时的访谈中,奥巴马谈到自己年少时的叛逆期,以及如何“尝试”不同类型的人格角色,拼命了解自己想成为什么样的非裔美国人。

“我逐一试穿一大堆衣服,”奥巴马说。“这一身是我应该有的样子。这一身会显得很酷。这一身意味着当个男人。”

他说,自己年少时的很多问题都是“围绕种族问题展开的”,但在年满20岁的时候,他的态度改变了。他说在那个时候,他开始懂得如何对自己种族身份的两面给予同样的尊重。

2008年还是总统候选人的时候,奥巴马曾直接谈论过种族问题,当时他曾经的牧师杰勒麦亚·赖特(Jeremiah Wright)发表了一些言论,奥巴马针对这些言论发表了一个有关种族问题的讲话。在他的第一任期中,奥巴马大多数时候都会回避种族问题,只是在上任之初,当马萨诸塞州坎布里奇的白人警官逮捕哈佛大学黑人教授时,他发表了评论。

周五的访谈在马龙的车库里进行,这位笑星的热门播客就是在这里录制的。官员称,他们不知道还有哪位在任总统曾在别人的车库录音棚里录制过访谈节目。

不过,他们不是在讲笑话;两人的对话多数时候是严肃的。除了讨论种族问题,奥巴马和马龙还谈论了枪支管控,以及上周南卡罗来纳州查尔斯顿以马内利非裔卫理圣公会教堂(Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church)发生枪击案后,是否应该采取一些应对措施。

“仅仅觉得难过是不够的,”奥巴马说。“我们可以采取一些措施来降低此类事件发生的可能性;我们能够采取的措施之一,就是强化一些基本的、合乎情理的枪支安全法规——顺便说一声,大多数枪支所有者是支持这样做的。”

他还表示:“问题是,是否有办法把那套合法的传统与一些合乎情理的东西融合起来,从而阻止一名21岁的年轻人——此人或许正为某些事情而怒不可遏,或对某事疑惑不解,抑或是一名种族主义者,或者精神错乱——走进枪支店,然后突然携有枪支,有可能造成严重伤害?这个问题我们始终没有完全解决。”

上周,奥巴马在教堂枪击案发生后立即发表了讲话。由于他似乎已经不再努力推进新枪支管控措施,支持采取更严格枪支管控的人对奥巴马表示了批评。

奥巴马在周五的采访中说,尽管美国公众广泛支持改革枪支法规,但由于美国步枪协会(National Rifle Association)的影响,这项法律不太可能很快得到通过。

“除非美国公众感受到足够的紧迫感,并对自己说‘这不正常,我们可以改变这种局面,而且我们将做出改变’,否则我不认为会有什么真正的行动,”奥巴马说。“而且如果你没有那种公众和选民的压力,事情就不会从内部发生改变。”
高丽人 发表评论于
任何人种都是有歧视的, 与生俱来的歧视是人类自我保护的手段之一。只有教育才能改变人的看法。黑人被歧视是真实的,但这并不能排除他们自身的责任。不同人种通婚可能是最有效的方法之一。中国人这个群体就是黑白通婚的产物,所谓炎黄子孙其实就是黑黄子孙,炎字在古汉语即黑意。
日光晃 发表评论于
人心散了,牌坊不好立了
清泉出山浊 发表评论于
种族歧视仍深入美国DNA,反种族歧视深入黑人的DNA, 怎么解决呢,直接告上联合国人权委员会.
analytical 发表评论于
黑鬼is racists.
独上南岛 发表评论于
明白人。
老不正经的 发表评论于
他的意思是不是干脆还是接着说黑鬼算了
Redcheetah 发表评论于
"种族歧视" coming from what "黑鬼" have been done and they are doing.
基层草民 发表评论于
不歧视黑人,但畏惧。更惧怕有朝一日南非那种现状在美国也出现。
卸任后的奥巴马应该致力于鼓励和促成尽可能多的黑人受教育,外出工作,远离毒品和罪恶。
 
正常读者 发表评论于
本来美国总统就是黑金的傀儡,
因为他黑,结果成为喊的最多而最没有权利的傀儡。哈
liamsun 发表评论于
被歧视,并不是因为种族。你也黑,歧视你还选你当总统?
kitday 发表评论于
如果不是他的祖国非洲肯尼亚强大了,种族歧视深入DNA的美国人怎么会选他当总统。

得了便宜还卖乖。

黑人的犯罪率是其它种族造成的。
黑人的失学率高是其它种族造成的。
黑人的贫困率高是其它种族造成的。
黑人社区是不用反思自己的,责任都在其它种族。
无故删除 发表评论于
这不是挑事吗
秦城典狱长 发表评论于

应该查查他的DNA

 
nowomannocry 发表评论于
....这么深入DNA还选他当了总统..
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