白水鱼注：FDA 昨天更新了《Vaccines for Children: Information for Parents and Caregivers》，觉得很有必要分享给家里有儿童的家长。由于20世纪疫苗注射在全球的普及和成功，今天已经很难看见过去一些年常见的儿童疾病了，如小儿麻痹，麻疹，脑膜炎，百日咳，乙肝等。由此人们开始渐渐对这些疾病变得陌生，甚至忽略它们对你的宝宝可能造成的伤害。前不久麻疹在加拿大的局部暴发就是一个例子。在中国，常规疫苗注射基本属于强制性措施，但在西方国家完全是志愿的，有文化的背景，有人权的考量，还有宗教的因素等。但不管怎样，保护你的孩子应该高于一切（一些疫苗，成人也应该考虑注射）。下面我用中文题目对照原文的方式来介绍这些常规疫苗（为了便于理解，没有按原文直译），比较一下你或你的孩子是否已经注射，如果没有，最好咨询一下你的家庭医生或专业人士。
•Brand Names: Daptacel and Infanrix
•What it's for: Prevents the bacterial infections diphtheria, tetanus (lockjaw), and pertussis (whooping cough). This combination vaccine is given as a series in infants and children 6 weeks through 6 years of age, prior to their 7th birthday. Diphtheria can infect the throat, causing a thick covering that can lead to problems with breathing, paralysis, or heart failure. Tetanus can cause painful tightening (spasms) of the muscles, seizures, paralysis, and death. Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, has the initial symptoms of runny nose, sneezing, and a mild cough, which may seem like a typical cold. Usually, the cough slowly becomes more severe. Eventually the patient may experience bouts of rapid coughing followed by the “whooping” sound that gives the disease its common name as they try to inhale. While the coughing fit is occurring, the patient may vomit or turn blue from lack of air. Patients gradually recover over weeks to months.
•Brand Names: Adacel and Boostrix
•What it's for: Booster shot for kids at 10 or 11 years of age to prevent the bacterial infections diphtheria, tetanus (lockjaw), and pertussis (whooping cough). In addition, Boostrix is approved for all individuals 10 years of age and older, (including the elderly). Adacel is approved for use in people ages 10 through 64 years.
•Brand Names: ActHIB, Hiberix, PedvaxHIB
•What it's for: Prevents Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) invasive disease. Before the availability of Hib vaccines, Hib disease was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis among children under 5 years of age in the United States. Meningitis is an infection of the tissue covering the brain and spinal cord, which can lead to lasting brain damage and deafness. Hib disease can also cause pneumonia, severe swelling in the throat, infections of the blood, joints, bones, and tissue covering of the heart, as well as death. Both ActHIB and PedvaxHIB are approved for routine administration for infants and children beginning at 2 months and through 18 months and 71 months of age respectively; Hiberix is approved as a booster shot in children 15 months through the age of before their 5th birthday.
•Brand Names: Havrix and Vaqta
•What it's for: Prevents disease caused by hepatitis A virus. People infected with hepatitis A may not have any symptoms; and if they do have symptoms, they may feel like that they have a mild "flu-like" illness; or they may have jaundice (yellow skin or eyes), tiredness, stomachache, nausea and diarrhea. Young children may not have any symptoms, so when a child’s caregiver becomes sick, that is when it is recognized that the child is infected. Hepatitis A is most often spread by an object contaminated with the feces of a person with hepatitis A, such as when a parent or caregiver does not properly wash his or her hands after changing diapers or cleaning up the stool of an infected person. Both vaccines are approved for use in people 12 months of age and older.
•Brand Names: Engerix-B and Recombivax HB
•What it's for: Prevents infection caused by hepatitis B virus. Hepatitis B is spread when body fluid infected with hepatitis B enters the body of a person who is not infected. Hepatitis B can lead to chronic hepatitis (liver inflammation), liver cancer, and death. The vaccines are approved for individuals of all ages, including newborns. It is particularly important for those at increased risk of exposure to hepatitis B virus such as a baby born to mom who is infected with the virus.
•Brand Names: Cervarix, Gardasil and Gardasil 9
•What it's for: Gardasil prevents anal cancer and associated precancerous lesions caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, and 18 in people ages 9 through 26 years. In this same age group for females, it is also approved for prevention of cervical, vulvar, and vaginal cancer and the associated precancerous lesions caused by HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18. Gardasil 9 is for use in females ages 9 through 26 and males ages 9 through 15. Gardasil 9 covers five more HPV types than Gardasil, preventing cervical, vulvar, vaginal and anal cancers caused by any of the following HPV Types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58. Overall, Gardasil 9 has the potential to prevent approximately 90% of cervical, vulvar, vaginal and anal cancers. Gardasil and Gardasil 9 are also approved for the prevention of genital warts caused by types 6 and 11 in both males and females. Cervarix prevents cervical and associated precancerous lesions caused by HPV types 16 and 18 in females ages 9 through 25 years of age.
Influenza Vaccine (administered with a needle)
•Brand Names (for children): Afluria, Fluarix, FluLaval, Fluvirin, Fluzone, Fluarix Quadrivalent, FluLaval Quadrivalent, and Fluzone Quadrivalent
•What it's for: Different vaccines are approved for different age groups to prevent influenza disease, caused by the strains of influenza virus that are included in the vaccine.
Influenza, commonly called “flu,” is a contagious respiratory virus that can cause mild to severe illness. The elderly, young children and people with certain health conditions (such as asthma, diabetes, or heart disease) are at high risk for serious influenza-related complications. Complications may include pneumonia, ear infections, sinus infections, dehydration, and worsening of certain medical conditions such as congestive heart failure, asthma or diabetes.
The strains of influenza virus that cause disease in people frequently change, so yearly vaccination is needed to provide protection against the influenza viruses likely to cause illness each winter.
•Brand Names (for children): FluMist Quadrivalent
•What it's for: Protects against four different strains of influenza virus included in the vaccine; for children and adults ages 2 through 49 years of age.
•Brand Name: M-M-R II
•What it's for: Prevents measles, mumps, and rubella in those 12 months of age and older. Measles is a respiratory disease that causes a skin rash all over the body, and fever, cough and runny nose. Measles can be severe, causing ear infections, pneumonia, seizures, and swelling of the brain. Mumps causes fever, headache, loss of appetite and the well-known sign of swollen cheeks and jaw which is from the swelling of the salivary glands. Rare complications include deafness, meningitis (infection of the lining that surrounds the brain and spinal cord), and painful swelling of the testicles or ovaries. Rubella, also called German Measles, causes fever, a rash, and--mainly in women--can also cause arthritis. Rubella infection during pregnancy can lead to birth defects.
•Brand Names: Bexsero, Menactra, Menveo and Trumenba
•What it's for: Prevents certain types of meningococcal disease, a life-threatening illness caused by the bacteria Neisseria meningitidis that infects the bloodstream and the lining that surrounds the brain and spinal cord (meningitis). Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of meningitis in young children. Even with appropriate antibiotics and intensive care, between 10 and 15 percent of people who develop meningococcal disease die from the infection. Another 10 to 20 percent suffer complications such as brain damage or loss of limb or hearing. Bexsero is approved for use in those 10 through 25 years of age to prevent invasive meningococcal disease caused by N. meningitidis serogroup B. Menactra is approved for use in infants and children beginning at 9 months of age, as well as for adults through 55 years of age. Menveo is approved for use in those 2 months through 55 years of age. Both Menactra and Menveo prevent meningococcal disease caused by N. meningitidis serogroups A, C, Y and W. Trumenba is approved for use in those 10 through 25 years of age to prevent invasive meningococcal disease caused by N. meningitidis serogroup B.
•Brand Name: Prevnar 13
•What it's for: Prevents invasive disease caused by 13 different types of the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae in infants, children and adolescents ages 6 weeks through 17 years. In infants and children 6 weeks through 5 years of age, it is also approved for the prevention of otitis media (ear infection) caused by 7 different types of the bacterium. Streptococcus pneumonie can cause infections of the blood, middle ear, and the covering of the brain and spinal cord, as well as pneumonia. Prevnar 13 is also approved for adults 50 years of age and older.
•Brand Name: Ipol
•What it's for: Prevents polio in infants as young as 6 weeks of age. Polio is a disease that can cause paralysis or death.
•Brand Names: Rotarix and RotaTeq
•What it's for: Prevents gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus infection in infants as young as 6 weeks of age. Rotavirus disease is the leading cause of severe diarrhea and dehydration in infants worldwide. In the United States, the disease occurs more often during the winter. Before rotavirus vaccines were available, most children in the United States were infected with rotavirus before the age of two. In addition, rotavirus resulted in about 55,000-70,000 hospitalizations and 20-60 infant deaths in the United States each year.
•Brand Name: Varivax
•What it's for: Prevents varicella (chickenpox) in children 12 months of age and older. Chickenpox usually causes a blister-like itchy rash, tiredness, headache and fever. It can be serious, particularly in babies, adolescents, adults and people with weak immune systems, causing less common, but more serious complications such as skin infection, scarring, pneumonia, brain swelling, Reye's syndrome, (which affects the liver and brain), and death.
•Brand Name: Kinrix
•What it’s for: Prevents diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and polio in children 4 through 6 years of age (prior to 7th birthday).
•Brand Name: Menhibrix
•What it’s for: Prevents certain types of meningococcal disease, caused by the bacteria Neisseria meningitidis and prevents Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) invasive disease in infants and children ages 6 weeks through 18 months.
•Brand Name: Pediarix
•What it’s for: Prevents diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B and polio in children 6 weeks of age through 6 years of age (prior to the 7th birthday).
•Brand Name: Pentacel
•What it’s for: Prevents diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and invasive Hib disease in children 6 weeks through 4 years of age (prior to 5th birthday).
•Brand Name: ProQuad
•What it’s for: Prevents measles, mumps, rubella (German measles), and varicella (chicken pox) in children 12 months through 12 years of age.
•Brand Name: Quadracel
•What it’s for: Prevents diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and polio in children 4 through 6 years of age.