Speech by H.E. Xi Jinping President of the People's Republic of China At UNESCO Headquarters
Your Excellency Madame Irina Bokova, Director-General of UNESCO,
Ladies and Gentlemen,
Good morning. It gives me great pleasure to have an opportunity of visiting the UNESCO headquarters. Let me begin by offering Madame Bokova my heartfelt congratulations on her re-election as the Director-General of the Organization and paying my sincere tribute to UNESCO for the extraordinary contribution it has made for greater exchanges and mutual learning among human civilizations.
教 科文组织诞生于69年前，那时世界反法西斯战争硝烟刚刚散去。面对战争给人类带来的惨烈后果，人类又一次反思战争与和平的真谛。千百年来，人类都梦想着持 久和平，但战争始终像一个幽灵一样伴随着人类发展历程。此时此刻，世界上很多孩子正生活在战乱的惊恐之中。我们必须作出努力，让战争远离人类，让全世界的 孩子们都在和平的阳光下幸福成长。
UNESCO was born 69 years ago when the smoke of the World War against Fascism had barely dissipated. The grisly horror of war forced mankind once again to reflect on the nature of war and peace. Throughout the centuries, people have yearned for lasting peace, but war, like a haunting ghost, has been accompanying the journey of human progress every step of the way. As we speak, many children on this planet are subjected to the horror of armed conflicts. We must do our utmost to keep war as far away as possible from mankind so that children across the world can grow up happily under the sunshine of peace.
The stone wall at the entrance to the UNESCO headquarters carries the inscription of one single message in several languages: Since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defenses of peace must be constructed.
As long as the idea of peace can strike deep roots and the sail of peace can be hoisted in the hearts and minds of people all over the world, a strong defense will be constructed to prevent and stop war. People hoped to promote inter-civilization exchanges, equality of educational opportunities and scientific literacy in order to dispel estrangement, prejudice and hatred, and spread the seeds for the idea of peace. This is precisely why UNESCO was established in the first place.
The aspiration and vision as such deserve our renewed commitment. Not only so, but we must also step up cross-border, cross-time-and-space and cross-civilization activities in education, science, technology and culture to spread the seeds of the idea of peace far and wide so that they will sprout, take root and grow in the hearts and minds of the world's people, and provide the planet we share with more and more forests of peace.
自 1945年成立以来，教科文组织忠实履行使命，在增进世界人民相互了解和信任、推动不同文明交流互鉴方面进行了不懈努力。中国高度重视同教科文组织的合 作，愿意加大参与教科文组织的各项活动。为体现对非洲的支持和帮助，我们决定把通过教科文组织向包括非洲国家在内的发展中国家提供的长城奖学金名额由每年 25人扩大为75人，我们还将同教科文组织一道把援助非洲信托基金的活动继续开展下去。
Since its inception in 1945, UNESCO has faithfully lived up to its mandate and worked untiringly to enhance trust and understanding among the world's peoples and promote exchanges and mutual learning among the various civilizations. China attaches great importance to its cooperation with UNESCO and stands ready to expand its participation in UNESCO activities. We have decided to expand the Great Wall Fellowship, a scheme that provides scholarship to developing countries, African countries included via UNESCO, from 25 to 75 people every year to demonstrate China's support and assistance for Africa. We will also continue to work within the framework of the UNESCO trust fund to help Africa.
Ladies and Gentlemen,Dear Friends,
Civilizations have become richer and more colorful with exchanges and mutual learning. Such exchanges and mutual learning form an important drive for human progress and global peace and development.
To promote exchanges and mutual learning among civilizations, we must adopt a right approach with some important principles. They, in my view, contain the following:
First, civilizations have come in different colors, and such diversity has made exchanges and mutual learning among civilizations relevant and valuable. Just as the sunlight has seven colors, our world is a place of dazzling colors. A civilization is the collective memory of a country or a nation. Throughout history, mankind have created and developed many colorful civilizations, from earlier days of primitive hunting to the period of agriculture, and from booming industrial revolution to the information society. Together, they present a magnificent genetic map of the exciting march of human civilizations.
"A single flower does not make spring, while one hundred flowers in full blossom bring spring to the garden." If there were only one kind of flower in the world, people will find it boring no matter how beautiful it is. Be it the Chinese civilization, or other civilizations in the world, they are all fruits of human progress.
我 参观过法国卢浮宫，也参观过中国故宫博物院，它们珍藏着千万件艺术珍品，吸引人们眼球的正是其展现的多样文明成果。文明交流互鉴不应该以独尊某一种文明或 者贬损某一种文明为前提。中国人在2000多年前就认识到了“物之不齐，物之情也”的道理。推动文明交流互鉴，可以丰富人类文明的色彩，让各国人民享受更 富内涵的精神生活、开创更有选择的未来。
I have visited the Louvre Museum in France and the Palace Museum in China, both of which house millions of pieces of art treasures. They are attractive because they are able to present the richness of diverse civilizations. Exchanges and mutual learning among civilizations must not be built on the exclusive praise or belittling of one particular civilization. As early as over 2,000 years ago, the Chinese people came to recognize that "it is only natural for things to be different". Greater exchanges and mutual learning among civilizations can further enrich the colors of various civilizations and the cultural life of people, and open up still greater alternatives in the future.
Second, civilizations are equal, and such equality has made exchanges and mutual learning among civilizations possible. All human civilizations are equal in terms of value. They all have their respective strengths and shortcomings. There is no perfect civilization in the world. Nor is there a civilization that is devoid of any merit. No one civilization can be judged superior to another.
我 访问过世界上许多地方，最喜欢做的一件事情就是了解五大洲的不同文明，了解这些文明与其他文明的不同之处、独到之处，了解在这些文明中生活的人们的世界 观、人生观、价值观。我到过代表古玛雅文明的奇琴伊察，也到过带有浓厚伊斯兰文明色彩的中亚古城撒马尔罕。我深深感到，要了解各种文明的真谛，必须秉持平 等、谦虚的态度。如果居高临下对待一种文明，不仅不能参透这种文明的奥妙，而且会与之格格不入。历史和现实都表明，傲慢和偏见是文明交流互鉴的最大障碍。
I have visited many places in the world. The best thing I wanted to do is to learn about differing civilizations across the five continents, what make them different and unique, how their people think about the world and life and what they hold dear. I have visited Chichen Itza, a window on the ancient Maya civilization, and the Central Asian city of Samarkand, an epitome of the ancient Islamic civilization. It is my keenly-felt conviction that an attitude of equality and modesty is required if one wants to truly understand the various civilizations. Taking a condescending attitude toward a civilization can not help anyone to appreciate its essence but may risk antagonizing it. Both history and reality show that pride and prejudice are two biggest obstacles to exchanges and mutual learning among civilizations.
Third, civilizations are inclusive, and such inclusiveness has given exchanges and mutual learning among civilizations the needed drive to move forward. The ocean is vast for it refuses no rivers. All civilizations are crystallizations of mankind's hard work and wisdom. Every civilization is unique. Copying other civilizations mechanically or blindly is like cutting one's toes just to fit his shoes, which is not only impossible but also highly detrimental. All achievements of civilizations deserve our respect and must be treasured.
History also tells us that only by interacting with and learning from others can a civilization enjoy full vitality. If all civilizations can uphold inclusiveness, the so-called "clash of civilizations" will be out of the question and the harmony of civilizations will become reality. This is like what we Chinese often say, "radish or cabbage, each to his own delight."
Having gone through over 5,000 years of vicissitudes, the Chinese civilization has always kept to its original root. Unique in representing China spiritually, it contains some most profound pursuits of the Chinese nation and provides it with abundant nourishment for existence and development. Though born on the soil of China, it has come to its present form through constant exchanges and mutual learning with other civilizations.
公 元前100多年，中国就开始开辟通往西域的丝绸之路。汉代张骞于公元前138年和119年两次出使西域，向西域传播了中华文化，也引进了葡萄、苜蓿、石 榴、胡麻、芝麻等西域文化成果。西汉时期，中国的船队就到达了印度和斯里兰卡，用中国的丝绸换取了琉璃、珍珠等物品。中国唐代是中国历史上对外交流的活跃 期。据史料记载，唐代中国通使交好的国家多达70多个，那时候的首都长安里来自各国的使臣、商人、留学生云集成群。这个大交流促进了中华文化远播世界，也 促进了各国文化和物产传入中国。15世纪初，中国明代著名航海家郑和七次远洋航海，到了东南亚很多国家，一直抵达非洲东海岸的肯尼亚，留下了中国同沿途各 国人民友好交往的佳话。明末清初，中国人积极学习现代科技知识，欧洲的天文学、医学、数学、几何学、地理学知识纷纷传入中国，开阔中国人的知识视野。之 后，中外文明交流互鉴更是频繁展开，这其中有冲突、矛盾、疑惑、拒绝，但更多是学习、消化、融合、创新。
In the 2nd century B.C., China began working on the Silk Road leading to the Western Regions. In 138 B.C. and 119 B.C., Envoy Zhang Qian of the Han Dynasty made two trips to those regions, spreading the Chinese culture there and bringing into China grape, alfalfa, pomegranate, flax, sesame and other products. In the Western Han Dynasty, China's merchant fleets sailed as far as India and Sri Lanka where they traded China's silk for colored glaze, pearls and other products. The Tang Dynasty saw dynamic interactions between China and other countries. According to historical documents, the dynasty exchanged envoys with over 70 countries, and Chang'an, the capital of Tang, bustled with envoys, merchants and students from other countries. Exchanges of such a magnitude helped the spread of the Chinese culture to the rest of the world and the introduction into China of the cultures and products from other countries. In the early 15th century, Zheng He, the famous navigator of China's Ming Dynasty, made seven expeditions to the Western Seas, reaching many Southeast Asian countries and even Kenya on the east coast of Africa. These trips left behind many stories of friendly exchanges between the people of China and countries along the route. In late Ming Dynasty and early Qing Dynasty, the Chinese people began to learn modern science and technology with great zeal, as the European knowledge of astronomy, medicine, mathematics, geometry and geography were being introduced into China, which helped broaden the horizon of the Chinese people. Thereafter, exchanges and mutual learning between the Chinese civilization and other civilizations became more frequent. There were indeed conflicts, frictions, bewilderment and denial in this process. But the more dominant features of the period were learning, digestion, integration and innovation.
佛 教产生于古代印度，但传入中国后，经过长期演化，佛教同中国儒家文化和道家文化融合发展，最终形成了具有中国特色的佛教文化，给中国人的宗教信仰、哲学观 念、文学艺术、礼仪习俗等留下了深刻影响。中国唐代玄奘西行取经，历尽磨难，体现的是中国人学习域外文化的坚韧精神。根据他的故事演绎的神话小说《西游 记》，我想大家都知道。中国人根据中华文化发展了佛教思想，形成了独特的佛教理论，而且使佛教从中国传播到了日本、韩国、东南亚等地。
Buddhism originated in ancient India. After it was introduced into China, the religion went through an extended period of integrated development with the indigenous Confucianism and Taoism and finally became the Buddhism with Chinese characteristics, thus making a deep impact on the religious belief, philosophy, literature, art, etiquette and customs of the Chinese people. Xuanzang (Hiuen Tsang), the Tang monk who endured untold sufferings as he went on a pilgrimage to the west for Buddhist scriptures, gave full expression to the determination and fortitude of the Chinese people to learn from other cultures. I am sure that you have all heard about the Chinese classics Journey to the West, which was written on the basis of his stories. The Chinese people have enriched Buddhism and developed some special Buddhist thoughts in the light of Chinese culture, and helped it to spread from China to Japan, Korea, Southeast Asia and beyond.
2000 多年来，佛教、伊斯兰教、基督教等先后传入中国，中国音乐、绘画、文学等也不断吸纳外来文明的优长。中国传统画法同西方油画融合创新，形成了独具魅力的中 国写意油画，徐悲鸿等大师的作品受到广泛赞赏。中国的造纸术、火药、印刷术、指南针四大发明带动了世界变革，推动了欧洲文艺复兴。中国哲学、文学、医药、 丝绸、瓷器、茶叶等传入西方，渗入西方民众日常生活之中。《马可·波罗游记》令无数人对中国心向往之。
In the course of some two thousand years and more, Buddhism, Islam and Christianity have been introduced into China successively, which allowed the country's music, painting and literature to benefit from the advantages of other civilizations. China's freehand oil painting is an innovative combination of China's traditional painting and the Western oil painting, and the works of Xu Beihong and other masters have been widely acclaimed. China's Four Great Inventions, namely, papermaking, gunpowder, movable-type printing and compass, led to changes in the world, including the European Renaissance. China's philosophy, literature, medicine, silk, porcelain and tea reached the West and became part of people's daily life. The Travels of Marco Polo generated a widespread interest in China.
大 家都知道，中国有秦俑，人们称之为“地下的军团”。法国总统希拉克参观之后说：“不看金字塔，不算真正到过埃及。不看秦俑，不算真正到过中国。”1987 年，这一尘封了2000多年的中华文化珍品被列入世界文化遗产。中国还有大量文明成果被教科文组织列入世界文化遗产、世界非物质文化遗产、世界记忆遗产名 录。这里，我要对教科文组织为保存和传播中华文明作出的贡献，表示衷心的感谢！
Many people know about the terracotta warriors, "the buried legions of Emperor Qin". After his visit to the site, President Chirac of France said that a visit to Egypt will not be complete without seeing the pyramids, and that a visit to China will not be complete without seeing the terracotta warriors. In 1987, this national treasure of China, shrouded in secrecy for over two thousand years, was put on the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage list. There are many more proud Chinese achievements that have been included in the World Cultural Heritage list, the World Intangible Cultural Heritage list and the Memory of the World list. Here, I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to UNESCO for its contribution to the preservation and dissemination of the Chinese civilization.
Ladies and Gentlemen,Friends,
Today, we live in a world with different cultures, ethnic groups, skin colors, religions and social systems, and the people of various countries have become members of an intimate community of shared destiny.
中 国人早就懂得了“和而不同”的道理。生活在2500年前的中国史学家左丘明在《左传》中记录了齐国上大夫晏子关于“和”的一段话：“和如羹焉，水、火、 醯、醢、盐、梅，以烹鱼肉。”“声亦如味，一气，二体，三类，四物，五声，六律，七音，八风，九歌，以相成也。”“若以水济水，谁能食之？若琴瑟之专壹， 谁能听之？”
The Chinese have long come to appreciate the wisdom of "harmony without uniformity". Zuo Qiuming, a Chinese historian who lived 2,500 years ago, recorded in the Chronicle of Zuo the following comments by Yan Ying, Prime Minister of the State of Qi during the Spring and Autumn Period: "Harmony is like cooking the thick soup. You need water, fire, vinegar, meat sauce, salt and plum to go with the fish or meat." "It is the same when it comes to music. Only by combining the texture, length, pace, mood, tone, pitch and style rightly and executing them properly can you produce an excellent melody." "Who can eat the soup with nothing but water in it? What ear can tolerate the same tone played repeatedly on one instrument?"
There are 200-odd countries and regions, over 2,500 ethnic groups and a multitude of religions in the world today. We can hardly imagine if this world has only one lifestyle, one language, one kind of music and one style of costume.
雨 果说，世界上最宽阔的是海洋，比海洋更宽阔的是天空，比天空更宽阔的是人的胸怀。对待不同文明，我们需要比天空更宽阔的胸怀。文明如水，润物无声。我们应 该推动不同文明相互尊重、和谐共处，让文明交流互鉴成为增进各国人民友谊的桥梁、推动人类社会进步的动力、维护世界和平的纽带。我们应该从不同文明中寻求 智慧、汲取营养，为人们提供精神支撑和心灵慰藉，携手解决人类共同面临的各种挑战。
Victor Hugo once said, "There is a prospect greater than the sea, and it is the sky; there is a prospect greater than the sky, and it is the human soul." Indeed, we need a mind that is broader than the sky as we approach different civilizations. Civilizations are like water, moistening everything silently. We should encourage different civilizations to respect each other and live in harmony, so that exchanges and mutual learning between civilizations will become a bridge promoting friendship between people around the world, an engine driving progress of human society, and a bond cementing world peace. We should draw wisdom and nourishment and seek spiritual support and psychological consolation from various civilizations, and work together to tackle the challenges facing mankind.
1987 年，在中国陕西的法门寺，地宫中出土了20件美轮美奂的琉璃器，这是唐代传入中国的东罗马和伊斯兰的琉璃器。我在欣赏这些域外文物时，一直在思考一个问 题，就是对待不同文明，不能只满足于欣赏它们产生的精美物件，更应该去领略其中包含的人文精神；不能只满足于领略它们对以往人们生活的艺术表现，更应该让 其中蕴藏的精神鲜活起来。
In 1987, 20 exquisite pieces of colored glaze were excavated at the underground chamber of Famen Temple in Shaanxi, China. These East Roman and Islamic relics were brought into China during the Tang Dynasty. Marveling at these exotic relics, I thought hard and concluded that as we approach the world's different civilizations, we should not limit ourselves to just admiring the exquisiteness of the objects involved. Rather, we should try to learn and appreciate the cultural significance behind them. Instead of only satisfying ourselves with their artistic presentation of people's life in the past, we should do our best to breathe new life into their inherent spirit.
Ladies and Gentlemen,Friends,
拿 破仑曾经说过，世上有两种力量：利剑和思想；从长而论，利剑总是败在思想手下。我们要积极发展教育事业，通过普及教育，启迪心智，传承知识，陶冶情操，使 人们在持续的格物致知中更好认识各种文明的价值，让教育为文明传承和创造服务。我们要大力发展科技事业，通过科技进步和创新，认识自我，认识世界，改造社 会，使人们在持续的天工开物中更好掌握科技知识和技能，让科技为人类造福。我们要大力推动文化事业发展，通过文化交流，沟通心灵，开阔眼界，增进共识，让 人们在持续的以文化人中提升素养，让文化为人类进步助力。
Napoleon Bonaparte once said, "There are only two forces in the world, the sword and the spirit. In the long run the sword will always be conquered by the spirit." We should develop education more actively. Education can open people's mind, impart knowledge, and cultivate temperament. The continued process of learning will enable our people to better appreciate the value of different civilizations. In this sense, education is an effective vehicle for the continuation and creation of civilizations. We should develop science and technology more vigorously. Scientific advancement and innovation can help people understand themselves and the world and be in a stronger position to change their society for the better. The continued process of exploiting nature will enable our people to master still more knowledge and skills. In this sense, science and technology are a powerful tool to make the world a better place for mankind. We should promote cultural undertakings more energetically. Cultural exchanges can help open our hearts to each other, broaden our horizon and build greater consensus among us. The continued process of cultivating people morally and intellectually will result in a higher standard of humanity. In this sense, culture is a big booster for human progress.
Ladies and Gentlemen,Friends,
The Chinese people are striving to fulfill the Chinese dream of the great renewal of the Chinese nation. The Chinese dream of the great renewal of the Chinese nation is about prosperity of the country, rejuvenation of the nation, and happiness of the people. It reflects the ideal of the Chinese people of today as well as the fine tradition of relentlessly seeking progress that we have had since ancient times.
实 现中国梦，是物质文明和精神文明均衡发展、相互促进的结果。没有文明的继承和发展，没有文化的弘扬和繁荣，就没有中国梦的实现。中华民族的先人们早就向往 人们的物质生活充实无忧、道德境界充分升华的大同世界。中华文明历来把人的精神生活纳入人生和社会理想之中。所以，实现中国梦，是物质文明和精神文明比翼 双飞的发展过程。随着中国经济社会不断发展，中华文明也必将顺应时代发展焕发出更加蓬勃的生命力。
The Chinese dream requires balanced development and mutual reinforcement of material and cultural progress. Without the continuation and development of civilization or the promotion and prosperity of culture, the Chinese dream will not come true. Forefathers of the Chinese nation long yearned for a world of great harmony in which people are free from want and follow a high moral standard. In the Chinese civilization, people's cultural pursuit has always been part of their life and social ideals. So the realization of the Chinese dream is a process of both material and cultural development. As China continues to make economic and social progress, the Chinese civilization will keep pace with the times and acquire greater vitality.
每 一种文明都延续着一个国家和民族的精神血脉，既需要薪火相传、代代守护，更需要与时俱进、勇于创新。中国人民在实现中国梦的进程中，将按照时代的新进步， 推动中华文明创造性转化和创新性发展，激活其生命力，把跨越时空、超越国度、富有永恒魅力、具有当代价值的文化精神弘扬起来，让收藏在博物馆里的文物、陈 列在广阔大地上的遗产、书写在古籍里的文字都活起来，让中华文明同世界各国人民创造的丰富多彩的文明一道，为人类提供正确的精神指引和强大的精神动力。
A civilization carries on its back the soul of a country or nation. It needs to be passed on from one generation to the next. Yet more importantly, it needs to keep pace with the times and innovate with courage. As we pursue the Chinese dream, the Chinese people will encourage creative shifts and innovative development of the Chinese civilization in keeping with the progress of the times. We need to inject new vitality into the Chinese civilization by energizing all cultural elements that transcend time, space and national borders and that possess both perpetual appeal and current value, and we need to bring all collections in our museums, all heritage structures across our lands and all records in our classics to life. In this way, the Chinese civilization, together with the rich and colorful civilizations created by the people of other countries, will provide mankind with the right cultural guidance and strong motivation.
Ladies and Gentlemen,Friends,
As an old Chinese poem goes, "When I glance at the visage of vernal breeze, I know that a thousand flowers of purple and red set spring aglow." UNESCO will mark its 70th anniversary next year. I am confident that under the stewardship of Director-General Bokova, the organization will make still more achievements in its efforts to promote exchanges and mutual learning among civilizations and advance the cause of peace in the world.
（中国日报网英语点津 Helen 编辑）