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罗素柯克“保守主义十大原则”

(2018-11-09 13:46:24) 下一个

罗素柯克的保守主义原则[编辑]

拉塞尔柯克开发了六种保守主义的“规范”,Gerald J. Russello描述如下:
1.对超越性秩序的信仰,柯克在传统,神圣的启示或自然法则中不同地描述;
2.对人类生存的“多样性和神秘性”的感情;
3.坚信社会需要强调“自然”区别的秩序和阶级;
4.相信财产和自由紧密相连;
5.对习俗,惯例和处方的信心,以及
6.认识到创新必须与现有的传统和习俗联系在一起,这需要尊重审慎的政治价值。[93]

柯克说,基督教和西方文明是“彼此难以想象的”[94]并且“所有文化都源于宗教。当宗教信仰衰落时,文化必须衰落,尽管在宗教信仰之后,文化必然会蓬勃发展滋养它已陷入难以置信。“[95]

在后来的作品中,柯克将这份名单扩展为他的“保守主义十大原则”[96],内容如下:
首先,保守派认为存在着持久的道德秩序。
第二,保守派坚持习俗,惯例和连续性。
3.第三,保守派相信所谓的处方原则。
第四,保守派遵循其审慎原则。
第五,保守派注意多样性的原则。
6.第六,保守派受到不完善原则的惩罚。
7.第七,保守派被说服自由与财产紧密相连。
8.Eighth,保守派支持自愿社区,就像他们反对非自愿的集体主义一样。
9.第九,保守派认为需要对权力和人类的激情进行谨慎的限制。
10.第十,思想保守派理解永恒和变革必须在充满活力的社会中得到认可和调和



Russell Kirk's principles of conservatism
[edit]

Russell Kirk developed six "canons" of conservatism, which Gerald J. Russello described as follows:

  1. A belief in a transcendent order, which Kirk described variously as based in tradition, divine revelation, or natural law;
  2. An affection for the "variety and mystery" of human existence;
  3. A conviction that society requires orders and classes that emphasize "natural" distinctions;
  4. A belief that property and freedom are closely linked;
  5. A faith in custom, convention, and prescription, and
  6. A recognition that innovation must be tied to existing traditions and customs, which entails a respect for the political value of prudence.[93]

Kirk said that Christianity and Western Civilization are "unimaginable apart from one another"[94] and that "all culture arises out of religion. When religious faith decays, culture must decline, though often seeming to flourish for a space after the religion which has nourished it has sunk into disbelief."[95]

In later works, Kirk expanded this list into his "Ten Principles of Conservatism"[96] which are as follows:

  1. First, the conservative believes that there exists an enduring moral order.
  2. Second, the conservative adheres to custom, convention, and continuity.
  3. Third, conservatives believe in what may be called the principle of prescription.
  4. Fourth, conservatives are guided by their principle of prudence.
  5. Fifth, conservatives pay attention to the principle of variety.
  6. Sixth, conservatives are chastened by their principle of imperfectability.
  7. Seventh, conservatives are persuaded that freedom and property are closely linked.
  8. Eighth, conservatives uphold voluntary community, quite as they oppose involuntary collectivism.
  9. Ninth, the conservative perceives the need for prudent restraints upon power and upon human passions.
  10. Tenth, the thinking conservative understands that permanence and change must be recognized and reconciled in a vigorous society.
http://www.wenxuecity.com/groups/bbs.php?act=bbsview&gid=2508&basecode=941933

Judeo-Christian ethics

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A monument at the Texas State Capitol depicting the Ten Commandments. The U.S. Supreme Court let it stand in Van Orden v. Perry (2005).

The idea that a common Judeo-Christian ethics or Judeo-Christian values underpins American politics, law and morals has been part of the "American civil religion" since the 1940s. In recent years, the phrase has been associated with political conservatives, but the concept—though not always the exact phrase—has frequently featured in the rhetoric of leaders across the political spectrum, including that of Franklin D. Roosevelt and Lyndon B. Johnson

 

 

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