闽姑(xiaomin)

Knowledge is power. 传播和学习正确的医疗/保健知识是重要的
个人资料
闽姑 (热门博主)
  • 博客访问:
正文

美国看病常识(6)---常见血液检查及参考值(中英对照)

(2010-02-02 20:56:02) 下一个


        以下值来自我的医院实验室,仅供参考。
        各医院、各实验室的值会有些差别,请参照自己的血液检查报告的正常值。

1. Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP)(基础代谢检查):

        是一组有八项的血液化学检查。包括四项电解质:钠、钾、氯、碳酸氢盐;两项反应肾功能的血尿素氮+肌酐,加上血糖和钙。

test

Reference range
in US Units

Reference Range
in SI Units

To Convert US to SI Unit
(multiplied by)

Sodium (Na+)

135--145 mEq/L

135--145 mmol/L

x 1

Potassium (K+)

3.5--5.0 mEq/L

3.5--5.0 mmol/L

x 1

Chloride ( Cl-)

97--109 mEq/L

97--109 mmol/L

x 1

Bicarbonate (HCO3) or CO2
碳酸氢盐

HCO3- 22--26 mEq/L;
PaCO2 35--45 mmHg.

HCO3- 22--26 mmol/L;
PaCO2 4.7--6.0 kPa

x1;

Blood Urea Nitrogen ( BUN)
血尿素氮

6--22 mg/dL

increased in acute glomerulonephritis,obstructive uropathy,mercury poisoning,nephrotic syndrome decreased in severe hepatic failure,pregnancy

Creatinine
肌酐

0.7--1.4 mg/dL

62--124 µmol/L

x 88.5

Glucose
血糖

fasting: 70--110mg/dL;
Postprandial(2 hours):65--140mg/dL.

3.85--6.05 mmol/L;
3.58--7.7 mmol/L.

x 0.055

Calcium ( Ca2+)

8.5--10.5 mg/dL

2.12--2.62 mmol/L

x 0.25


2.Complete Blood Count (CBC)(全血细胞计数):

test

中文

Reference range
in US Units

Reference Range
in SI Units

WBC
(White blood cell count/Leukocyte count)

白细胞数

4,500--11,000/cu mm

4.5--11x109/L

Neutrophils
(WBC differential count)

嗜中性粒细胞

45%--73%

Number fraction:
0.45--0.73

Eosinophils
(WBC differential count)

嗜酸性粒细胞

0%--4%

Number fraction:
0.00--0.04

Basophils
(WBC differential count)

嗜碱性粒细胞

0%--1%

Number fraction:
0.00--0.01

Lymphocytes
(WBC differential count)

淋巴细胞

20%--40%

Number fraction:
0.2--0.4

Monocytes
(WBC differential count)

单核细胞

2%--8%

Number fraction:
0.02--0.08

RBC
(Red blood cell count/Erythrocyte count)

红细胞数

Males: 4.3--6.2x106/cu mm;
Females: 3.8--5.5x106/cu mm

Males: 4.3--6.2x1012/L;
Females: 3.8--5.5x1012/L

Hemoglobin

血红蛋白或血色素

Males:13--18 gm/dL;
Females:12--16gm/dL.

Males: 2.02--2.79 mmol/L;
Females:1.86--2.48 mmol/L.
Hematocrit
红细胞比容 / 比积

Males:42%--52%;
Females:35%--47%.

Volume fraction:0.42--0.52;
Volume fraction: 0.35--0.47.
MCV
(Mean corpuscular volume)
平均红细胞容积

84--96 cu mm

84--96 fL

MCH
(Mean corpuscular hemoglobin)
平均血红蛋白量

28--33 pg/cell

28--33 pg/cell

MCHC
(Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration)
平均血红蛋白浓度

33%--35%

concentration fraction:
0.33--0.35

Platelet count
(thrombocyte count)

血小板

150,000--450,000/cu mm

0.15--0.45x1012/L

MPV
(Mean platelet volume)

血小板平均体积

2.65 to 2.9 µm

9.7–12.8 fL


3.Arterial Blood Gas(ABG)(动脉血气分析):

test

中文

Reference range
in US Units

ReferenceRange
in SI Units

pH

pH值

7.35–7.45

7.35–7.45

H+

氢离子

35–45 nmol/L(nM)


35–45 nmol/L(nM)

PaO2

血氧

80–100 mmHg

9.3–13.3 kPa

PaCO2

二氧化碳

35–45 mmHg

4.7–6.0 kPa

HCO3

碳酸氢盐

22–26 mEq/L

22--26 mmol/L

O2 sat

血氧饱和度

95 - 99%

95 - 99%



4. Liver Function Tests(肝功能检查):

Standard Liver Panel (标准肝功能检查)

test

中文

Reference range
in US Units

Reference Range
in SI Units

Albumin (Alb)白蛋白

3.5--5.0 g/dL

35--50 g/L

Alanine transaminase (ALT) or (SGPT)谷丙转氨酶/谷氨酸转氨酶

9--60 U/L

9--60 U/L

Aspartate transaminase (AST) or(SGOT)天冬氨酸氨基转移酶

10--40 U/L

10--40 U/L

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) 碱性磷酸酶

30--120 U/L

30--120 U/L

Total bilirubin (TBIL)

总胆红素

0.1--1.2 mg/dL

1.7--20.4 µmol/L

Direct bilirubin 直接胆红素

0--0.3 mg/dL

0--5.1 µmol/L

Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)

γ-谷氨酰转肽酶

0--51 U/L

0--51 U/L



5. Protein Tests(蛋白质检查)

         蛋白质检查可以反映身体的营养状况,并帮助检查和诊断肝、肾及其他疾病。有时候在症状出现前就可以通过这一测定先发现不正常。若总蛋白(total protein)不正常,必须做进一步的测试,以确定哪些特定的蛋白质异常地高或低而得出诊断。

test

中文

Reference range
in US Units

Reference Range
in SI Units

Human serum albumin 人血白蛋白

3.5--5.0 g/dL

35--50 g/L

Serum total protein血清总蛋白

6.5--8.5 g/dL

65--85 g/L



6. Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)(综合代谢检查):

        是一组有十四项的常规血液化学检查。BMP(八项)+ Protein Tests(Human serum albumin,Serum total protein)+ Liver Function Tests(ALP,ALT,AST,Bilirubin)。目的是检查肝肾功能、电解质和体液平衡。具体请看1. BMP, 4. Liver Function Tests 5. ProteinTests 表里相关的值,这里不再列表赘述。


7. Iron Tests(检查血中的铁):

        是测定血中铁的含量、血液运输铁的能力和铁的儲存量。用于各型贫血的鉴别诊断(如:缺铁性贫血、再生障碍性贫血、铁粒幼红细胞贫血和慢性溶血性贫血等)。需空腹12小时抽静脉血检查。

test

中文

Reference range
in US Units

Reference Range
in SI Units

Serum iron 血清铁(血液内游离的铁离子)

Male: 65-177 μg/dL;
Female: 50-170 μg/dL

Male: 11.6-31.7 µmol/L; Female: 9.0-30.4 μmol/L

TIBC(Total iron-binding capacity)血清总铁结合力/血清运铁容量240--450 µg/dL43.0--80.6 µmol/L
UIBC(Unsaturated iron-binding capacity)未饱和铁结合力The UIBC is calculated by subtracting the serum iron from the TIBC.UIBC= TIBC- Serum iron
Transferrin saturation
(= Serum iron/ TIBC)
运铁蛋白饱和度Male: 20-50%;
Female: 15-50%
Serum Ferritin血清铁蛋白(血液内结合状态的铁,检查体内铁缺乏的最灵敏的指标)Males: 20--250 ng/mL; Females: 12--250 ng/mLMales: 20--250 µg/L;
Females: 12--250 µg/L


8. Lipid profile(Lipid panel)(血脂检查) :

         高血脂增加心血管疾病的风险。需空腹12小时抽静脉血检查。

test

中文

Reference range
in US Units

Reference Range
in SI Units

Total cholesterol总胆固醇 recommended <200 mg/dL;
moderate risk 200--239 mg/dL;
high risk >240 mg/dL.
<5.2 mmol/L;
5.2--6.2 mmol/L;
>6.24 mmol/L
High density lipoprotein cholesterol
(HDL-C)
(good cholesterol )
高密度脂蛋白胆固醇
好胆固醇
major risk factor <40 mg/dL;
negative risk factor >59 mg/dL
x 0.026=mmol/L
Low density lipoprotein cholesterol
(LDL-C)
(bad cholesterol )
低密度脂蛋白胆固醇
坏胆固醇
recommended <129 mg/dL;
moderate risk 130--159 mg/dL;
high risk >159 mg/dL.
x 0.026=mmol/L
Triglycerides三酸甘油酯/甘油三酯recommended 30--149 mg/dL
(<160)
x 0.011=mmol/L


9.Thyroid function test(甲状腺功能检查):

test

中文

Reference range
in US Units

Reference Range
in SI Units

Interpretation

TSH
(Thyroid-stimulating hormone)/Serum thyrotropin
甲状腺刺激激素/促甲状腺素0.4--6 mIU/L
0.3 to 3.0 mIU/L(as of 2003 )
0.4--6 mIU/L
<0.4() ---possible hyperthyroidism(甲亢) ;
>6() ---hypothyroidism(甲减).
Note: the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists has revised these guidelines as of early 2003, narrowing the range to 0.3 to 3.0.
T3 / Serum triiodothyronine血清三碘甲状腺素80 to 220 ng/dL1.23--3.39 nmol/L<80()---hypothyroidism(甲减);
>220()---Pregnancy,hyperthyroidism(甲亢)
Total T4 / Serum thyroxine血清甲状腺素4.5--12.5 µg/dL
58.5--162.5 nmol/L<4.5 can be indicative of an underfunctioning thyroid when TSH is also elevated.
>12.5()---hyperthyroidism(甲亢).
Low T4 with low TSH can sometimes indicate a pituitary problem.
Free T4 / Free Thyroxine 游离甲状腺0.7 to 2.0
ng/dL
9.0--25.8
pmol/L
<0.7 ---possible hypothyroidism(甲减)


10.Clotting factor(凝血因子):
 

test

中文

Reference range
in US Units

Clinical significance

Prothrombin time

凝血酶原时间

12–15 seconds

Prolonged by deficiency of factors I,II,V,VII, and X, fat malabsorption, severe liver disease, coumadin anticoagulant therapy.
INR
(international normalized ratio )
国际标准化比值 1.0
2--3 for therapy in atrial fibrilation,deep vein thrombosis,and pulmonary embolism;
2.5--3.5 for therapy in prosthetic heart valves
INR used to standardize the prothrombin time and anticoagulation therapy.
Partial thromboplastin time (activated)活化部分凝血激酶时间

25--30 seconds

Prolonged in deficiency of fibrinogen,factors II,V,VIII, IX,X,XI, and XII,and in heparin therapy.
Thrombin time 凝血酶时间

10--15 seconds

Prolonged by heparin, fibrin degradation products, lupus anticoagulant.


11.Cardiac marker(心脏病指标) :

        虽然仍有医院、有医生在做CPK-MB test,但这里只介绍一个目前被认为是检测急性心肌梗塞(Acute Myocardial Infarction)最灵敏的检测法---Troponin test (Troponin I (肌钙蛋白I) onset: 4-6 hrs, peak: 12-24 hrs, return to normal: 4-7 days).

Troponin I  Reference Range

Interpretation   (判读)

0.00--0.09

Normal

0.10--0.60

Possible indication of myocardial damage,  unstable angina, congestive heart failure, myocarditis, cardiac surgery or invasive testing. Clinical correlation is required.

>0.60

May indicate significant myocardial injury. Clinical correlation is required.


12.Cancer marker(癌症指标):

      这些指标不是诊断癌症的专属的、特异性指标,很多非肿瘤的、偶然的身体变化也可能使这些指标不正常,所以它们只能作为一种参考或评估治疗前后的参考值。请不要心慌,让自己的医生根据具体情况来判读结果。

test

中文

Reference range
in US Units

Clinical significance

AFP (Alpha fetoprotein) 甲胎蛋白<10 µg/LOften elevated in liver cancers (hepatocellular) and testicular cancers (non-seminomatous). Raised levels are also present during pregnancy or some gastrointestinal cancers.
CA 15-3CA 15-3<30 IU/LIncreased in metastatic breast. Raised levels are also present in other non-malignant conditions (eg. cirrhosis, benign diseases of ovaries & breast).
CA 19-9 CA 19-9 <37 IU/L Increased in pancreatic,hepatobiliary,gastric,and colorectal cancer,gallstones .Its level is best evaluated along with CEA marker test.
CA125 CA125 <35 IU/L Increased in colon, upper gastrointestinal(GI),ovarian, and other gynecologic cancers; during menstruation,pregnancy or individuals with ovarian cysts,pericarditis,hepatitis,cirrhosis of the liver or peritonitis.
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)癌胚抗原 0-2.5 µg/L(nonsmoker);
0-5 µg/L(smoker)
CEA was first identified in colon cancer. Elevated CEA levels are found in a variety of cancers other than colonic, including pancreatic, gastric, lung, and breast. It is also detected in benign conditions including cirrhosis, inflammatory bowel disease, chronic lung disease, and pancreatitis.
PSA (Prostate-Specific Antigen)前列腺特异性抗原 0-4 ng/ml PSA is prostate-specific, not cancer-specific. A variety of conditions can raise PSA levels: prostatitis (prostate inflammation), benign prostatic hypertrophy (prostate enlargement), and prostate cancer.



*本系列专为新移民而写。都是网友发QQH到我的信箱里常问的问题。因悄悄话的版面有限,把答复的内容写在自己的博客里,并公开贴在健康养生坛。到目前为止已完成六篇。感谢网友、健康坛版主和网管大人的热心支持(只写了一部分时就被贴出),这是最后的完整版,介绍常见的12项检查内容。它是最费时费力的一篇---要制表,要核对数据和单位。无高深的医学知识,只是把它们归类整理出来,供参考之用。但请参照自己的检验报告里的正常范围,因为各实验室的检验方法和仪器会有误差,而且需要医生结合你的情况来判读你的检验结果。千万不要只看到自己的某一项指标偏高或偏低就心慌了---单方面一个指标的不正常有时是没有临床意义的。请咨询你的医生,由医生来下结论。

谢谢大家,特别是给我留QQH的网友的信任。下一篇的题目是:各种疼痛的英文表达(the 5th vital sign---pain)(也是一网友要求的。但最近较忙,尽量一星期后完成。)*
 


(欢迎转载。敬请注明出处,谢谢!)



**今天(09/30/2010)补加一个《中国医学院毕业并在美行医的医生名录》链接,方便查找美国各州行医的各科中国医生,请点击: http://physician.cmgforum.net/









[ 打印 ]
阅读 ()评论 (20)
评论
ZTM 回复 悄悄话 Thanks a lot! Do you know how to attach an excel or word of Microsoft file to wenxuecity? that way we can print the tables without loosing or messing data.
悠哉 回复 悄悄话 谢谢,收藏了。
hxzq 回复 悄悄话 太有用了。在此致以最高敬意。
东风漫浸 回复 悄悄话 You did a great job. It helps me a lot.

A little suggestion: it will be nice if you can contribute more time to give a review for each value - what happen if a value is high/low.
闽姑 回复 悄悄话 回复CeeQL、Da_yu、schou333、irisxi、南福上加哈侯、sxs、 一方砚、pzhaofliu、群思、asalways、米德1 的评论:
谢谢夸奖!有用就好。祝各位好!
CeeQL 回复 悄悄话 谢谢您!
Da_yu 回复 悄悄话 thanks
schou333 回复 悄悄话 谢谢!
irisxi 回复 悄悄话 Thanks very much! Very useful!
南福上加哈侯 回复 悄悄话 good!
sxs 回复 悄悄话 可别删除,太感谢了。
一方砚 回复 悄悄话 太感谢了,最近有很多化验单,自己查了很多仍不太明白,这个真是及时雨。
pzhaofliu 回复 悄悄话 太好了。多谢。
群思 回复 悄悄话 谢谢! 很有用
asalways 回复 悄悄话 太有用了,谢谢你!!
米德1 回复 悄悄话 很实用
已经收集
期待续集
谢谢闽姑
登录后才可评论.