洲河的博客

记录一家四口的生活。
正文

Spanish Flu,story told by CDC

(2021-09-22 08:47:44) 下一个

1.pathogen,HIN1, originated from birds

2. 500 million one-third of the world’s population infected

3. World wide death 50 million , US, 675.000

4. High mortality group, people younger than 5 years old, 20-40 years old, and 65 years and older. 

5. While the 1918 H1N1 virus has been synthesized and evaluated, the properties that made it so devastating are not well understood. 

1940s: develop the first inactivated flu vaccine from fertilized chicken eggs 

1940s: First-generation mechanical ventilators become available.

1942: A bivalent (two component) vaccine that offers protection against influenza A and influenza B viruses is produced after the discovery of influenza B viruses.

1944: Use of cell cultures for virus growth is discovered. 

1945: Inactivated influenza vaccine is licensed for use in civilians.

1942: The Communicable Disease Center (CDC) opens in the old offices of the Malaria Control in War Areas, located on Peachtree Street in Atlanta, Georgia 

1948: The World Health Organization (WHO) Influenza Centre is established at the National Institute for Medical Research in London. 


1952: The Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS) is created by WHO to monitor the evolution of influenza viruses. The GISRS network originally includes 26 laboratories.


1956: The CDC’s Influenza Branch in Atlanta is designated a WHO Collaborating Centre for Surveillance, Epidemiology & Control of Influenza.


1957: A new H2N2 flu virus emerges to trigger a pandemic. There are about 1.1 million deaths globally, with about 116,000 in the U.S.

1960: recommends annual influenza vaccination for people with chronic debilitating disease, people aged 65 years or older, and pregnant women.

1962: CDC launches the 122 Cities Mortality Reporting System.

1970s An H1N1 (swine flu) outbreak among recruits at Fort Dix leads to a vaccination program to prevent a pandemic. Within 10 months, roughly 25% of the US population is vaccinated (48 million people)

1993: The Vaccines for Children (VFC) Program is established . The program increases the likelihood of children getting recommended vaccinations on schedule.

1993: The costs of influenza vaccine become a covered benefit under Medicare Part B.

1997: The first human infection with an avian influenza A H5N1 virus is identified in Hong Kong.

1997: FluNet, a web-based flu surveillance tool, is launched by WHO.

1998: Influenza virus surveillance in swine, conducted by the US Department of Agriculture, begins in the United States. A virus that is a hybrid of human, bird and swine flu viruses is detected in pigs. This virus becomes the dominant flu virus in U.S. pigs by 1999.

April 2002: The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) encourages that children 6 to 23 months of age be vaccinated annually against influenza.

2005: The entire genome of the 1918 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus is sequenced  https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/qa/1918flupandemic.htm

2006: The National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza Implementation Plan is published. 

2007: Approves a resolution calling for increased collaboration between human and veterinary medical communities‘one health’ 

CDC begins working to develop a virus (called a candidate vaccine virus) that could be used to make vaccine to protect against this new virus.
April 25, 2009: The World Health Organization (WHO) declares a public health emergency of international concern.

April 17, 2009:  A new H1N1 virus is detected in the U.S. CDC begins working to develop a virus that could be used to make vaccine to protect against this new virus.

April 25, 2009: The World Health Organization (WHO) declares a public health emergency of international concern.


June 11, 2009: WHO officially declares the new 2009 H1N1 outbreak a pandemic.
2009: CDC begins a complex and multi-faceted response to the H1N1 pandemic which lasts more than a year.


2009: Physicians use point of care rapid immunoassay tests to provide influenza results within 15 minutes during the H1N1 pandemic


October 5, 2009: The first doses of monovalent H1N1 pandemic vaccine are administered.
April 25, 2009: The World Health Organization (WHO) declares a public health emergency of international concern.

August 10, 2010: WHO declares an end to 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic.

2010:  The ACIP recommends annual influenza vaccination for those 6 months of age and older.

2012: Vaccines containing cell-cultured virus become available.

2012: WHO makes first vaccine composition recommendation for a quadrivalent vaccine.

2012: CDC partners with Association of Public Health laboratories to define the optimal right size for influenza virologic surveillance. The project produces right-size calculators; statistical tools that help states determine the optimal amount of influenza testing needed for desired confidence levels of surveillance.

2014: The FDA approves peramivir (Rapivab) to treat influenza in adults. It is the first IV flu medication.


2017: CDC updates guidelines for use of non-pharmaceutical measures to help prevent spread of pandemic influenza based on latest scientific evidence. 

 

[ 打印 ]
阅读 ()评论 (0)
评论
目前还没有任何评论
登录后才可评论.