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水之断想

(2012-07-23 14:56:27) 下一个

 

北京大水,让一个现代化的大都市变成了泽国。面对瘫痪的城市,面对在大水中丧生的 37 位市民,人们不禁反思:如何才能防止灾难重演?

水,是人类赖以生存不可缺少的元素,水,也是人类面临的最大的威胁之一。水灾所造成的灾难是远高于地震的自然灾害,自有历史记载以来,死亡万人以上水灾每 5 — 6 年即出现一次,这种局面到现代也无根本的改变。

此次北京大水也不例外,于是人们自然产生了抱怨,发泄对政府当局管理的不满。

政府应该反省。

但是,抱怨毕竟是解决不了问题的,如何从根本上解决问题?

据说世界上有些先进城市的防水措施不错,下水道如宫殿一般:“下水道是城市的良心”。比如巴黎。

巴黎早在 19 世纪就建立了超过 2300 公里的排水系统,总长度超过了巴黎地铁。 据说,如此一来,巴黎不会暴雨成灾。

其实中国也有先进的时候,也据说故宫的排水系统经受了 600 年的考验,既有地下水道,又有地面明沟,纵横一气的排水设施,能够使宫内 90 多个院落、 72 万平方米面积的雨水通畅排出……。

中国的事情其实很难办,你说把北京的下水道也造成宫殿吧,那又是劳民伤财,挥霍民脂民膏,你说把今天的“故宫”中南海的排水系统也设计成抗 600 年一遇的大雨的话,那又是贪官只顾自己不管百姓死活……。我想,既然中南海的空气可以特供,那里的排水系统也是世界一流的,至少远远优于当年的故宫。

共产党真是没有一件事情能做好、做对的。

可是,宫殿一样的下水道就真的能抗得住水灾吗?

答案当然是否定的。

那巴黎不会暴雨成灾吗?稍微读过一点欧洲史就不会有这样的问题了。

著名的 1910 年巴黎大水灾使得巴黎市的 2 万个建筑被淹, 20 万巴黎市民受灾, 20 万巴黎郊区的居民也受灾,全部物质损失估计值当时的法国金法郎 4 亿元,差不多合现在的十亿欧元。这场水灾一直持续了两个月!

     



此后的 100 年里,虽然巴黎没有遇到这样大的水灾,但是规模较小的洪水还是经历了好几次,比如 2001 年 3 月:

2011 年 8 月:

人类改造自然的伟业无论多么值得炫耀,在自然力的面前都是如此脆弱。如果只为一己的利益肆意侵害自然,受惩罚的终是人类自身。

当然,这不是说人类在自然面前就应该束手待毙,如果北京少建一些鸟巢大裤衩之类的形象工程,多做一些利国利民的实事,人民的生命和财产的损失将会减少到最低。

无论如何,人类不可能完全依靠科技来和自然斗争。法国左翼作家 Jean Jaurès 说道:“社会中的民众如果只能听由风雨摆布,那就和住在一个没有屋顶的房屋中没有什么两样,每一场灾难之后,都有一个教训值得吸取。巴黎大水灾的教训就是,我们不能把希望都寄托在科技和城市的基础建设上,巴黎市民曾经为宫殿般的下水道庆贺,但是,当科技也无能为力的时候,人类自身才是对应自然,与自然共存的强大力量。”

一个文明进步社会的标志是,在灾难中和灾难之后,民众是否能团结一致,互帮互助;政府是否能及时公开透明地为民众提供信息和资源,及时有力地改正自身工作上的失误和过失,这些方面,我们的民众和政府都有长足的进步,也有亟待改善的地方。

再者,我们也不应该把目光仅仅放在眼前发上的事件上,就“水”而言,中国是水灾大国,迄今为止,世界上最为严重的 10 大水患,中国就占了前 6 名!其中,黄河是罪魁祸首。

历朝历代,各级政府都对黄河水患高度重视,但又束手无策,毛泽东曾号召:“一定要把黄河的事情办好”,可是黄河上虽然修了几个水坝,但问题并没有解决, 98 年长江洪灾,“严防死守”也没有起到作用,而“高峡出平湖”的三峡大坝,却成了高悬在中国人头上的一把达摩克利斯之剑。

经济的发展如果不以人为本,不安客观规律办事,不尊重自然,光有钱是不行的。

*********************

全球最惨重的水灾(按死亡人数计算)

Throughout history, floods have proven to be the deadliest natural disasters. This is mainly due to the high population densities around rivers. When well-behaved, rivers provide the resources needed for agriculture, transportation, and industry. It is no accident that all of the ancient civilizations rose around rivers.

It also should be noted that not all of the dead were the victims of the initial floodwaters. Disease and famine that followed the disasters probably killed more than the floodwaters themselves.

Flooding disasters primarily as a result of typhoons or hurricanes have been excluded from this list and are instead included on the list of worst hurricane disasters.

1.

Huang He (Yellow) River, China 1931

Death Toll: 1,000,000 to 3,700,000

The Huang He River is prone to flooding because of the broad expanse of plain that lies around it. One of the major reasons for the flooding is the high silt content that gives the river its yellow tint (and thus its name). The silt—which constitutes as much as 60% of its volume—builds up until the river actually is higher than the surrounding land. The tendency to flood is exacerbated by ice dams which block the river in Mongolia; the dams back up the water, and then release devastating walls of water when they break.

The history of flooding has prompted the Communist Chinese government to embark on a program of building dams for flood control. The dams, however, have not proven entirely effective and have been the target of criticism from environmentalists.

2.

Huang He (Yellow) River, China 1887

Death Toll: 900,000 to 2,000,000

3.

Huang He (Yellow) River, China 1938

Death Toll: 500,000 - 900,000

The 1938 flood of the Huang He was caused by Nationalist Chinese troops under Chiang Kai-Shek when they broke the levees in an attempt to turn back advancing Japanese troops. The strategy was partly successful. By 1940, the Japanese were essentially in a stalemate with Chinese forces.

4.

Huang He (Yellow) River, China 1642

Death Toll: 300,000

Chinese rebels destroy the dikes along the city of Kaifeng, flooding the surrounding countryside.

5.

Ru River, Banqiao Dam, China 1975

Death Toll: 230,000

This flood was caused by the collapse of the Banquia Dam, along with several others, following a heavy rain caused by a typhoon. It is the worst dam related collapse in history.

6.

Yangtze River, China 1931

Death Toll: 145,000

Although the Huang He has caused more deaths, the Yangtze has had more than 1,000 recorded floods.

7.

The Netherlands and England 1099

Death Toll: 100,000

A combination of high tides and storms flooded the Thames and the Netherlands, killing 100,000.

8.

The Netherlands 1287

Death Toll: 50,000

A seawall on the Zuider Zee failed, flooding the low-lying polder.

9.

The Neva River, Russia 1824

Death Toll: 10,000

An ice dam clogged the Neva, flooding nearby cities.

10.

The Netherlands 1421

Death Toll: 10,000


http://www.epicdisasters.com/index.php/site/comments/the_worlds_worst_floods_by_death_toll/

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