第一本是墨若（Edward R. Murrow）的传记，Murrow: His Life and Times （by A.M. Sperber Fordham University Press 1998）。墨若是美国CBS广播公司的主持人，1950年代美国人无法进入中国，1956年底周恩来总理访问缅甸，于是墨若知道机会来了，进不了中国，可以去缅甸啊。通过当时缅甸总理吴努按排了对周恩来总理的采访，墨若到了缅甸，在圣诞节前采访了周恩来。这是CBS的独家新闻，也是美国电视的一个突破，同时也是政治上的烫山芋，先斩后奏，制作完了才扔给公司。CBS在新年前一天夜里11：15播放了采访，后面还跟了一个反驳的一组评判（rebuttal panel），墨若对此很不高兴。他本来想自己选几个参与者，比如对中国很了解的白修德（Theodore White），但未获批准。节目播出后有批评也有赞誉，但是主体是负面的，墨若自己也很不满意：太做作，太一本正经，问题都是事先提交的，而且交流还要通过翻译。墨若事后给赛珍珠写信说：周恩来拒绝以私人交谈的方式进行，虽然他理解并能说流利的英文。后来墨若回忆，当时就像是听一张老旧的唱片一样。录制过程中，一次，周恩来一手捂着一个话筒，用无懈可击的英语纠正了翻译的一个错误。在换录像带的时候，他离开了。
P506 Christmas week of 1956, Murrow interviewed Premier Zhou Enlai of China, flying to Rangoon for a meeting negotiated by Premier U Nu of Burma. It was a first time exclusive for CBS and a breakthrough for American TV. It was also a political hot potato, filmed without so much as a by-your-leave, a fait compli dumped in the network’s lap. CBS ran it after 11:15 PM on New Year’s Eve, followed, to Murrow’s dismay, by a rebuttal panel. The newsman’s attempt to suggest participants, including the knowledgeable Teddy White, met with a thumbs-down. An interview with Marshal Tito of Yugoslavia filmed six months later, was also followed by a panel, less hostile than in the case of Chinese Premier.
.....Stanton himself had negotiated a controversial freewheeling Khrushchev interview over Face the Nation in June 1957 with Daniel Schorr--filmed inside the Kremlin
P507 To Murrow, the praised and damned Zhou Enlai piece was a disappointment--stilted, superformal, based on submitted questions and filtered through an interpreter. “He repulsed all my efforts at private conversation, even though..... he speaks and understand English perfectly. “ He wrote Pearl Buck afterward. “Like listening to a worn and familiar phonograph record” was how he later characterized the interview. At one point in the filming, the Premier, a hand over each microphone, corrected his interpreter in impeccable English, then sat back as the mediated session continued. When the film magazines were changed, he left the room.
In retrospect, both the Zhou and Tito footage pointed toward the seventies and eighties and the emerging world fermenting between the superpowers. The Chinese leader, answering Murrow’s question, Did he believe the United States was against “those nations.... struggling for freedom,” strongly criticized U. S. policy in Latin America. At the same time, despite a denial of Sino-Soviet differences, the old mandarin expressed the hope for resumed U.S.-China relations and even a “collective peace pact” for Asia and the Pacific, to include the United States.
Six months later, on an island in the Adriatic, Tito of Yugoslavia talked with Murrow of differences in “socialist systems,” Mao Zedong, events in Hungary and the Middle East, tha arms race, and coexsistence as the only alternative, so said the marshal, to annihilation. “But we should abandon the idea of intervening, of mixing in the internal affairs of each other.....If a majority of the people of a country decide to have a socialist system, then nobody has the right to try and impose another system on that people.....”
In contrast with the Zhou piece, the Tito interview was relaxed, far-ranging, Murrow and the old ex-partisan got on well together, the state photographers snapped stills of the two men in their short sleeves, strolling the ground around the presidential residence....
第二本，也是写墨若的：Edward R. Murrow, an American Original （by Joseph E. Persico, McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 1988） (20170504)
P417 It was a time in which Murrow sought to pierce the East-West veil of ignorance. Intellectual isolationism disturbed him. It smacked of fear and know-nothingism.
In December of that year, he plunged directly into the maelstrom. Chou En-lai was visiting Rangoon. Murrow could not get State Department approval to travel to China, but he could go to Burma, where the Chinese premier was willing to be interviewed.
As a journalistic initiative, the Chou interview was historic. No one had yet delivered a leader of Red China to an American television audience. As communnication, the broadcast was a flop. Chou did not answer Murrow’s questions so much as use them as cues to recite copybook maxims from the teachings of Mao. But at least CBS management could not deny the historic significance of the encounter in Rangoon and allowed the interview to be broadcast. It was handled, however, like a case of leprosy, banished to the outmost fringe of the schedule,11:15 on a Sunday night.
第三本是The Haunted Fifties:1953-1963 （by I.F. Stone Little, Brown and Company 1963.） (20190117)
P194 No Competition in Ideas
The Khrushchev interview was a major event for all who desire a relaxation of international tension. The Columbia Broadcasting System performed a public service by it. Khrushchev’s performance was strikingly superior to Chou En-lai’s when interviewed some months ago by Ed Murrow. Though the Chinese Communists have shown themselves more flexible theorists than the Russians, Murrow got nothing from Chou En-lai but slogans and propagandistic rantings. Khrushchev deserves credit for seizing what Chou En-lai missed, the opportunity to emerge as a human being for an American audience. This humanization of the leaders and people on the opposite side is the first essential toward peace.