not your size but your determination shapes your future
文章来源: TJKCB2015-09-08 12:24:45

I heard her name as in Joel Osteen sermon through satellite radio this morning. I can't help but read about her.

"At 5-foot tall, so tiny feature, nobody thought she'd got a career in acting in tall-legged beauty-packed Hollywood. You'd taken by surprise by:

Not only did she make into the list of 12 people who have won an Emmy, a Grammy, an Oscar and a Tony Award (an EGOT). Hayes also received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, America's highest civilian honor, from President Ronald Reagan in 1986.[1], but also acted as the tallest queen of human history, England queen Elizabeth."

I first knew her when I watched Anastasia (1956), With her starring role in 1956's Anastasia (1956), Ingrid Bergman made a triumphant return to the American screen and won the Academy Award for Best Actress for a second time. The award was accepted for her by her friend Cary Grant.[18]

Anastasia (1956) Cast

Whom did Helen Hayes star? She starred "Dowager Empress Marie Feodorovona"

Alexandra Feodorovna (Russian: Императрица Александра Фёдоровна, Imperatritsa Aleksandra Fyodorovna) (6 June 1872 – 17 July 1918), was Empress consort of Russia as the spouse of Nicholas II, the last Emperor of the Russian Empire. Born as Alix of Hesse and by Rhine, she was a granddaughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. Upon being received into the Russian Orthodox Church, she was given the name Alexandra Feodorovna and in 2000 she was canonized as Saint Alexandra the Passion Bearer. Alexandra was also a maternal great-aunt of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh and paternal first cousin twice-removed to his wife Queen Elizabeth II.

Alexandra is best remembered as the last Tsaritsa of Russia, as one of the most famous royal carriers of the haemophilia disease, and for her support of autocratic control over the country. Her friendship with the Russian mystic and holy man, Grigori Rasputin, was also an important factor in her life.

What's my saying? It's not your size but your determination shapes your future and destiny. Read on if you're not convinced and inspired, as below.


Helen Hayes

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Helen Hayes
Helen Hayes
Born Helen Hayes Brown
(1900-10-10)October 10, 1900
Washington, D.C.
Died March 17, 1993(1993-03-17) (aged 92)
Nyack, New York
Occupation Actress
Years active 1905-1985
Spouse(s) Charles MacArthur (1928-1956; his death)
Children Mary MacArthur (1930-1949)
James MacArthur (1937-2010) (adopted)

Helen Hayes MacArthur (née Brown) (October 10, 1900 – March 17, 1993) was an American actress whose career spanned almost 80 years. She eventually garnered the nickname First Lady of American Theatre and was one of twelve people who have won an Emmy, a Grammy, an Oscar and a Tony Award (an EGOT). Hayes also received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, America's highest civilian honor, from President Ronald Reagan in 1986.[1]

In 1988, she was awarded the National Medal of Arts. The annual Helen Hayes Awards, which have recognized excellence in professional theatre in the greater Washington, D.C. area since 1984, are her namesake. In 1955 the former Fulton Theatre on 46th Street in New York City's Broadway Theater District was renamed the Helen Hayes Theatre. When that venue was torn down in 1982, the nearby Little Theatre was renamed in her honor.



Early life[edit]

Helen Hayes was born in Washington D.C. on October 10, 1900. Her mother, Catherine Estelle (née Hayes), or Essie, was an aspiring actress who worked in touring companies.[2][3] Her father, Francis van Arnum Brown, worked at a number of jobs, including as a clerk at the Washington Patent Office and as a manager and salesman for a wholesale butcher.[3][4] Hayes' Irish Catholic maternal grandparents emigrated from Ireland during the Irish Potato Famine.[5]

Hayes began a stage career at an early age. She said her stage debut was as a 5-year-old singer at Washington's Belasco Theatre (on Lafayette Square, across from the White House.)[6] By the age of ten, she had made a short film called Jean and the Calico Doll, but moved to Hollywood only when her husband, playwright Charles MacArthur, signed a Hollywood deal. She attended the Academy of the Sacred Heart Convent in Washington and graduated in 1917.[7]


In the film What Every Woman Knows (1934)

Her sound film debut was The Sin of Madelon Claudet, for which she won the Academy Award for Best Actress. She followed that with starring roles in Arrowsmith (with Myrna Loy), A Farewell to Arms (with actor Gary Cooper, whom Hayes admitted to finding extremely attractive), The White Sister (opposite Clark Gable), What Every Woman Knows (a reprise from her Broadway hit) and Vanessa: Her Love Story. However, Hayes did not prefer that medium to the stage.

Hayes eventually returned to Broadway in 1935, where for three years she played the title role in the Gilbert Miller production of Victoria Regina, with Vincent Price as Prince Albert, first at the Broadhurst Theatre and later at the Martin Beck Theatre.

In 1953, she was the first-ever recipient of the Sarah Siddons Award for her work in Chicago theatre, repeating as the winner in 1969. She returned to Hollywood in the 1950s, and her film star began to rise. She starred in My Son John (1952) and Anastasia (1956), and won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her role as an elderly stowaway in the disaster film Airport (1970). She followed that up with several roles in Disney films such as Herbie Rides Again, One of Our Dinosaurs is Missing and Candleshoe. Her performance in Anastasia was considered a comeback—she had suspended her career for several years due to the death of her daughter Mary, and her husband's failing health.

In 1955 the Fulton Theatre was renamed for her. However, business interests in the 1980s wished to raze that theatre and four others to construct a large hotel that included the Marquis Theatre. To accomplish razing this theatre and three others, as well as the Hotel Astor, the business interests received Hayes' consent to raze the theatre named for her, even though she had no ownership interest in the buildings. Parts of the original Helen Hayes theatre on Broadway were used to construct The Shakespeare Center on the Upper Westside of Manhattan, which Hayes dedicated with Joseph Papp in 1982.[8] In 1983 the Little Theater on West 45th Street was renamed The Helen Hayes Theatre in her honor, as was a theatre in Nyack, which has since been renamed the Riverspace-Arts Center. In early 2014 the site was refurbished and styled by interior designer Dawn Hershko and reopened as The Playhouse Market a quaint restaurant and Gourmet Deli.

It is unclear when or by whom Hayes was called the "First Lady of the Theatre". Her friend, actress Katharine Cornell also held that title, and each thought that the other deserved it.[9][10] One critic said that Cornell played every Queen as though she were a woman, whereas Hayes played every woman as though she were a Queen.[9]

In 1982, with friend Lady Bird Johnson, she founded the National Wildflower Research Center, now the Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center in Austin, Texas. The center protects and preserves North America's native plants and natural landscapes.[11]

The Helen Hayes Award for theater in the Washington D.C. area is named in her honor. She has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6220 Hollywood Blvd. Helen Hayes is also a member of the American Theatre Hall of Fame.[12]

Personal life[edit]

Hayes was a Catholic[13][14] and a pro-business Republican who attended many Republican National Conventions (including the one held in New Orleans in 1988), but she was not as politically vocal as some others (e.g., Adolphe Menjou, Ginger Rogers, John Wayne, Ronald Reagan etc.) in the Hollywood community of that time.

Hayes wrote three memoirs: A Gift of Joy, On Reflection and My Life in Three Acts. Some of the themes in these books include her return to Roman Catholicism (she had been denied communion from the Church for the length of her marriage to MacArthur, who was a divorced Protestant); and the death of her only daughter, Mary, who was an aspiring actress, from polio at the age of 19. Hayes's adopted son, James MacArthur, went on to a career in acting, starring in Hawaii Five-O on television. (Hayes herself guest starred on a 1975 episode of Hawaii Five-0, playing the aunt of MacArthur's character.)

Hayes was hospitalized a number of times for her asthma condition, which was aggravated by stage dust, forcing her to retire from legitimate theater in 1971, at age 71.[15][16]

Her last Broadway show was a 1970 revival of Harvey, in which she co-starred with James Stewart. Clive Barnes wrote "She epitomizes flustered charm almost as if it were a style of acting...She is one of those actors...where to watch how she is doing something is almost as pleasurable as what she is doing."[17] She spent most of her last years writing and raising money for organizations that fight asthma.


Riverside Shakespeare Company Shakespeare Center Dedication with Helen Hayes, 1982.

Hayes was a generous donor of time and money to a number of causes and organizations, including the Riverside Shakespeare Company of New York City. Along with Mildred Natwick, she became a founding member of the company's Board of Advisors in 1981.[18] She was also on the board of directors for the Greater New York Council of the Girl Scouts of the USA during the early 1970s.

In 1982, Hayes dedicated Riverside's The Shakespeare Center with New York theatre producer, Joseph Papp,[19] and in 1985 returned to the New York stage in a benefit reading for the company with a reading of A Christmas Carol with the late Raul Julia, Len Cariou, Mary Elizabeth Mastrantonio, Carole Shelley, Celeste Holm and Harold Scott, directed by W. Stuart McDowell.[20] The next year Hayes performed a second benefit for the Riverside Shakespeare Company, this time at the Marquis Theatre, the construction of which had been made possible by the demolition of the Helen Hayes Theatre three years before. The production featured Rex Smith, Ossie Davis and F. Murray Abraham, produced by McDowell and directed by Robert Small, with Hayes narrating the performance.

Helen Hayes Hospital[edit]

According to her daughter-in-law, HB Macarthur, Hayes took the most pride, however, in her philanthropic work with Helen Hayes Rehabilitation Hospital located in West Haverstraw, NY She was extremely proud of the strides the hospital made toward the rehabilitation of people with disabilities.

Hayes became involved with the hospital in the 1940s and was named to the Board of Visitors in 1944. In 1974, the hospital was renamed in her honor. She served on the Helen Hayes Hospital Board of Visitors for 49 years, until her death in 1993. In that time, she advocated tirelessly for the hospital and successfully led a fight to prevent the relocation of the facility to Albany in the 1960s. In the 1970s, she was instrumental in the successful lobbying for funding to transform the hospital into a state-of-the-art facility.

Hayes also contributed her enthusiastic support to hospital events and fund-raising efforts, including handing out diplomas to the children upon graduation when the hospital was still a pediatric care facility. She also faithfully attended the hospital's annual Classic Race, leading the race by riding in a classic car and handing out awards to runners, handcyclists and wheelchair racers, and generously offering the use of her home Pretty Penny for a dinner to launch the hospital's endowment fund.


Hayes died on St. Patrick's Day,1993 from congestive heart failure in Nyack, New York. Lillian Gish had designated Hayes as beneficiary of her estate, but Hayes survived her by less than a month. Hayes was interred in the Oak Hill Cemetery, Nyack, New York.[21] In 2011, she was honored with a US postage stamp.[22]

Body of work[edit]

Stage and awards[edit]

Year Production[23] Role[23][24] Notes
1905 Miss Hawke's May Ball Irish Dancer  
A Midsummer Night's Dream Peaseblossom  
1908 Babe in the Woods Boy babe  
1909 Jack the Giant Killer Gibson Girl, Nell Brinkley, Girl impersonators  
A Royal Family Prince Charles Ferdinand  
Children's Dancing Kermess Impersonation of "The Nell Brinkley Girl"  
The Prince Chap Claudia, Age 5  
A Poor Relation Patch  
1910 Old Dutch Little Mime  
The Summer Widowers Pacyche Finnegan, Pinkie's playmate  
1911 The Barrier Molly, an Alaskan Child  
Little Lord Fauntleroy Cedric Errol  
The Never Homes Fannie Hicks, Another Near Orphan  
The Seven Sisters Klara, the Youngest Daughter  
Mary Jane's Pa    
1912 The June Bride The Holder's Child  
1913 Flood Victim's Benefit    
The Girl with Green Eyes Susie, the Flower Girl  
His House in Order Derek Jesson, his son  
A Royal Family Prince Charles Ferdinand  
The Prince Chap    
The Prince and the Pauper Tom Canty and Edward, Prince of Wales  
1914 The Prodigal Husband Young Simone  
1916 The Dummy Beryl Meredith, the Kidnapper's Hostage  
On Trial His Daughter, Doris Strickland  
1917 It Pays to Advertise Marie, Maid at the Martins  
Romance Suzette  
Just a Woman Hired girl  
Mile-a-Minute Kendall Beth  
Rich Man, Poor Man Linda Hurst  
Alma, Where Do You Live? Germain  
Mrs. Wiggs of the Cabbage Patch Asia  
Within the Law    
Pollyanna Pollyanna Whittier, The Glad Girl  
1918 Penrod    
Dear Brutus Margaret, his daughter  
1919 On the Hiring Line Dorothy Fessenden, his daughter  
Clarence Cora Wheeler  
The Golden Age    
1920 Bab Bab
1921 The Wren Seeby Olds  
The Golden Days Mary Ann  
1922 To the Ladies Elsie Beebe  
No Siree!: An Anonymous Entertainment by the
Vicious Circus of the Hotel Algonquin
1923 Loney Lee Loney Lee  
1924 We Moderns Mary Sundale, their Daughter  
The Dragon    
She Stoops to Conquer Constance Neville  
Dancing Mothers Catherine (Kittens) Westcourt  
Quarantine Dinah Partlett  
1925 Caesar and Cleopatra Cleopatra  
The Last of Mrs. Cheyney Maria  
Young Blood Georgia Bissell  
1926 What Every Woman Knows Maggie Wylie  
1927 Coquette Norma Besant  
1928 Coquette Norma Besant London version
1930 Mr. Gilhooley A girl  
Petticoat Influence Peggy Chalfont  
1931 The Good Fairy Lu  
1933 Mary of Scotland Mary Stuart  
1935 Caesar and Cleopatra Cleopatra  
Victoria Regina Victoria  
1934 What Every Woman Knows  
1936 Victoria Regina Victoria Revival
1938 The Merchant of Venice Portia  
Victoria Regina Victoria Revival
1939 Ladies and Gentlemen Miss Terry Scott  
1940 Twelfth Night Viola  
1941 Candle in the Wind Madeline Guest  
1943 Harriet Harriet Beecher Stowe  
1944 Harriet Harriet Beecher Stowe Revival
1947 Alice-Sit-By-The-Fire Mrs. Alice Grey  
Happy Birthday Addie Tony Award for Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Play
1948 The Glass Menagerie Amanda Wingfield  
1949 Good Housekeeping    
1950 The Wisteria Trees Lucy Andree Ransdell  
1952 Mrs. McThing Mrs. Howard V. Larue III  
1955 Gentleman, The Queens Catherine, Lady Macbeth, Mary and Queen Victoria  
The Skin of Our Teeth Mrs. Antrobus  
1956 Lovers, Villains and Fools Narrator, Puck and the Chorus from Henry V  
The Glass Menagerie The Mother  
1958 Time Remembered The Duchess of Pont-Au-Bronc Tony Award for Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Play
1958 A Adventure Lulu Specer  
Mid-Summer Rose, the Maid  
A Touch of the Poet Nora Melody  
1960 The Cherry Orchard Lyuboff Ranevskaya  
The Chalk Garden Mrs. Maugham  
1962 Shakespeare Revisited: A Program for Two Players    
1964 Good Morning Miss Dove Miss Lucerna Dove  
The White House Abigail Adams, Dolley Madison, Edith Wilson, Julia Grant, Leonora Clayton, Mary Todd Lincoln, Mrs. Benjamin Harrison, Mrs. Franklin Pierce, Mrs. Grover Cleveland, Mrs. James G. Blaine, Mrs. Theodore Roosevelt, Rachel Jackson  
1965 Helen Hayes' Tour of the Far East  
1966 The Circle    
The School for Scandal Mrs. Candour  
Right You Are If You Think You Are Signora Frola  
We Comrades Three Mother  
You Can't Take It with You Olga  
1967 The Show-Off Mrs. Fisher Tony Award's Vernon Rice-Drama Desk Award
1968 The Show-Off Mrs. Fisher return engagement
1969 The Front Page Mrs. Grant  
1970 Harvey Veta Louise Simmons Nominated - Tony Award for Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Play
1971 Long Day's Journey Into Night Mary Cavan Tyrone  
1980     Tony Award's Lawrence Langner Memorial Award

Filmography and awards[edit]

Year Film Role Notes
1910 Jean and the Calico Doll   though 'unconfirmed' and the film is lost, Hayes would have been nine years old when appearing in this film with canine Vitagraph star Jean
1917 The Weavers of Life Peggy  
1928 The Dancing Town   short subject
1931 Arrowsmith Leora Arrowsmith  
The Sin of Madelon Claudet Madelon Claudet Academy Award for Best Actress
1932 A Farewell to Arms Catherine Barkley  
The Son-Daughter Lian Wha 'Star Blossom'  
1933 The White Sister Angela Chiaromonte  
Another Language Stella 'Stell' Hallam  
Night Flight Madame Fabian  
1934 Crime Without Passion Extra in hotel lobby Uncredited
What Every Woman Knows Maggie Wylie  
1935 Vanessa: Her Love Story Vanessa Paris  
1938 Hollywood Goes to Town Herself, uncredited short subject
1943 Stage Door Canteen Herself  
1952 My Son John Lucille Jefferson  
1953 Main Street to Broadway Herself  
1956 Anastasia Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Drama
1959 Third Man on the Mountain Tourist Uncredited
1961 The Challenge of Ideas Narrator short subject
1970 Airport Ada Quonsett Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress
1974 Herbie Rides Again Mrs. Steinmetz Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy
1975 One of Our Dinosaurs is Missing Hettie  
1977 Candleshoe Lady St. Edmund  

Television appearances and awards[edit]

Year Title Role Notes
1950 Showtime, U.S.A.   Episode #1.1
Prudential Family Playhouse   The Barretts of Wimpole Street
Pulitzer Prize Playhouse Mary, Queen of Scots The Late Christopher Bean
1951 Pulitzer Prize Playhouse Mary, Queen of Scots Mary of Scotland
Schlitz Playhouse of Stars   Dark Fleece
Schlitz Playhouse of Stars   The Lucky Touch
Schlitz Playhouse of Stars   Not a Chance
Robert Montgomery Presents Queen Victoria Victoria Regina
    Nominated — Emmy Award for Best Actress (nonspecific role)
1952 Omnibus   The Twelve Pound Look
    Nominated — Emmy Award for Best Actress (nonspecific role)
1953 Omnibus   The Happy Journey
Omnibus   Mom and Leo
Christmas with the Stars    
Medallion Theatre Harriet Beecher Stowe "Battle Hymn"
    Emmy Award for Best Actress (nonspecific role)
1954 The United States Steel Hour Mrs. Austin Welcome Home
The Best of Broadway Fanny Cavendish The Royal Family
The Motorola Television Hour Frances Parry Side by Side
1955 Producers' Showcase Mrs. Antrobus The Skin of Our Teeth
The Best of Broadway Abby Brewster Arsenic and Old Lace
1956 Omnibus   Dear Brutus
Omnibus   The Christmas Tie
1957 The Alcoa Hour   Mrs. Gilling and the Skyscraper
Nominated - Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress – Miniseries or a Movie
Playhouse 90 Sister Theresa Four Women in Black
1958 Omnibus   Mrs. McThing
The United States Steel Hour Mother Seraphim One Red Rose for Christmas
Nominated - Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress – Miniseries or a Movie
1959 Hallmark Hall of Fame Essie Ah, Wilderness!
Play of the Week Madame Ranevskaya The Cherry Orchard
1960 The Bell Telephone Hour Baroness Nadedja von Meck The Music of Romance
Play of the Week Madame Ranevskaya The Velvet Glove
Dow Hour of Great Mysteries Letitia Van Gorder The Bat by Mary Roberts Rinehart
1961 Michael Shayne   Murder Round My Wrist
1963 The Christophers   What One Bootmaker Did
1967 Tarzan Mrs. Wilson The Pride of the Lioness
1969 Arsenic and Old Lace Abby Brewster  
1970 The Front Page Narrator  
1971 Do Not Fold, Spindle, or Mutilate Sophie Tate Curtis Nominated - Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress – Miniseries or a Movie
1972 Harvey Veta Louise Simmons  
Here's Lucy Mrs. Kathleen Brady Lucy and the Little Old Lady
Ghost Story Miss Gilden Alter-Ego
1973–1974 The Snoop Sisters Ernesta Snoop Nominated - Emmy Award for Best Lead Actress in a Limited Series
1975 Hawaii Five-O Aunt Clara Retire in Sunny Hawaii - Forever
Nominated - Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress for a Single Appearance in a Drama or Comedy Series. Costarred with her son James MacArthur (who played her nephew in the episode).
1976 Arthur Hailey's the Moneychangers Dr. McCartney miniseries
Victory at Entebbe Etta Grossman-Wise  
1978 A Family Upside Down Emma Long Nominated - Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress – Miniseries or a Movie
1980 The Love Boat Agatha Winslow 1 episode
1982 Love, Sidney Mrs. Clovis Pro and Cons
Murder is Easy Lavinia Fullerton  
1983 A Caribbean Mystery Miss Marple  
1984 Highway to Heaven Estelle Wicks  
1985 Murder with Mirrors Miss Marple  

Other awards[edit]

In 1979, the Supersisters trading card set was produced and distributed; one of the cards featured Hayes's name and picture.[25] In 1983, Hayes received the Award for Greatest Public Service Benefiting the Disadvantaged, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards.[26]

See also[edit]


  1. Jump up ^ Reagan, Ronald."Ronald Reagan: Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom - May 12, 1986", May 12, 1986, accessed August 27, 2011
  2. Jump up ^ "The Official Website of Helen Hayes: Biography" Helen, accessed August 27, 2011
  3. ^ Jump up to: a b "Biography of Helen Hayes", accessed August 27, 2011
  4. Jump up ^ "The Theatre:Helen Millennial" Time Magazine, December 30, 1935.
  5. Jump up ^ Rice, Jean (March 18, 1993). "Helen Hayes, Flower of the Stage, Dies at 92". New York Times.
  6. Jump up ^ Evely, Douglas E., Dickson, Paul, and Ackerman, S.J."The White House Neighborhood"On This Spot: Pinpointing the Past in Washington D.C. (2008), Capital Books, ISBN 1-933102-70-5, p.166
  7. Jump up ^ "Helen Hayes", accessed August 27, 2011
  8. Jump up ^ O'Haire, Patricia. "Dickens lends the Bard a Hand," The New York Daily News, September 13, 1982
  9. ^ Jump up to: a b Mosel, p.unknown
  10. Jump up ^ "The Theatre: Great Katharine"Time Magazine, April 3, 1939
  11. Jump up ^ "About Us, History", accessed August 27, 2011
  12. Jump up ^ "Members of the American Theater Hall of Fame". Retrieved February 5, 2014.
  13. Jump up ^ Hayes, Helen. My Life in Three Acts. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich: San Diego, CA, 1990, p.unknown
  14. Jump up ^ Hevesi, Dennis. "Helen Hayes Is Remembered in Church She Loved", The New York Times, March 21, 1993, p.45
  15. Jump up ^ Anderson, Ruth Nathan. "Helen Hayes Discovers She's Allergic to Dust," Boca Raton News, November 23, 1980
  16. Jump up ^ "Helen Hayes Biography", accessed August 27, 2011
  17. Jump up ^ Barnes, Clive. "Stage:Unseen White Rabbit Returns:James Stewart Stars in Phoenix's 'Harvey'", The New York Times, February 25, 1970, p.41
  18. Jump up ^ O'Haire, Patricia. "Dickens lends the Bard a Hand," The New York Daily News, Sept 13, 1982
  19. Jump up ^ Brochure of the Riverside Shakespeare Company, 1982, p. 3.
  20. Jump up ^ Tomasson, Robert E. "Helping Those Who Help;Scrooge's Return", The New York Times, November 24, 1985, p.78
  21. Jump up ^ Pace, Eric."Helen Hayes, Flower of the Stage, Dies at 92"The New York Times (requires registration), March 18, 1993
  22. Jump up ^ "Helen Hayes Postage Stamp", April 25, 2011, accessed August 27, 2011
  23. ^ Jump up to: a b "Helen Hayes Credits, Broadway" Internet Broadway Database, accessed August 27, 2011
  24. Jump up ^ "About Helen Hayes - Theater (Official site)" Helen, accessed August 27, 2011
  25. Jump up ^ Wulf, Steve (2015-03-23). "Supersisters: Original Roster". Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  26. Jump up ^


  • Mosel, Tad and Macy, Gertrude. Leading Lady: The World and Theatre of Katharine Cornell(1978), Little, Brown & Co, Boston, ISBN 0-316-58537-8
  • Murphy, Donn B. and Moore, Stephen. Helen Hayes; A Bio-Bibliography (1993)

External links[edit]