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英文里的完成时

(2018-06-08 08:45:03) 下一个

英文里的完成时

话说昨天给大家讲进行时时,本来已经讲完了,突然冒出一访客说俺还露了一个进行时,那就是当你想客气的时候,你会婉转地(故作深沉)把问题变成一个过去现在时的从句。她说:I was wondering if you could do me a favor. 一看就是高手,既然是高手:I was wondering why she was not offering her own English lessons. 这里呀,其实是故作深沉,完全是多余的,因为你完全可以说: Could you please do me a favor?   哈哈,调侃她一下了,这个小朋友在我这里来表现还是很好的,今后呀我还有很多英文问题请教她,我觉得她的英文很棒,应该是《外语系的女生们》中的一位!   
好了,言归正传,今天要给大家讲讲完成式。中国人也有完成时,
比如:我已经做完作业了。我已经打电话给她了。一个简单的“已经”就搞定,真佩服中文。英文也有自己的“已经”,就是Already。但英国人就是啰嗦,犹豫不决,already后还没有already。还要变动词。怎么变呢? 在过去时的基础上变。因为完成时是建立在过去时的基础上的。过去时是将动词后面加ed, 那么完成时在这个基础上加have,就是have (has) + 动词ed. 

我已经打电话给她了 - I have already called her.  (老实巴交的动词)。

趁机复习一下其它时态: 
现代时:I call her. 
过去时:I called her. 
将来时: I will call her. 
现代进行时:I am calling her. 
过去进行时:I was calling her.
将来进行时:I will be calling her. 

我已经做完作业了 - I have already done my homework. (搞特殊化的动词)

现代时:I do my homework. 
过去时:I did my homework.
将来时: I will do my homework. 
现代进行时:I am doing my homework. 
过去进行时:I was doing my homework. 
将来进行时:I will be doing my homework. 

上面讲到的完成时是现在完成的,还有两种完成时:
过去完成时:  I had already called her when you came to my house yesterday.  昨天你到我家时我已经打了电话给她。
将来完成时:  I will have already called her by the time you (will) come to my house tomorrow. 明天你到我家时我会已经给她打完电话。

复杂吧。不要急,慢慢来。上次我讲到大家精看精听时要看懂文章的两个方面,即语文意思和语法结构,就是要你每次精看精听一篇文章要找出其中的语法想象,比如今天讲到的完成时,和以前讲到的其它时态语态。一起去看看这周的那篇文章,找找完成时:

https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/stories/coming-back

Once there had been a river running through the middle of the forest, but now there was just a dry ditch.  
You have always been a lot more adventurous than me.

两个完成时的句子,都是bee引出的表语,这个时候把be当动词变就是了。

完了吧,不一定呀。等那个牡丹花女来了同意了才能下课。今天奖励你的小Cookie: 

Patient: Doctor, I think that I've been bitten by a vampire. 
Doctor: Drink this glass of water. 
Patient: Will it make me better? 
Doctor: No, but I'll be able to see if your neck leaks. 

这个里面呀,有个完成时,但是是个被动式的完成时,这个时候就要把被动式带进来,再把其中的be进行改变, 本来是:
I am (or was) bitten by a vampire.   变:  I've been bitten by a vampire. 

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阅读 ()评论 (5)
评论
Fanreninus 回复 悄悄话 回复 'PeonyInJuly' 的评论 : 谢谢指证!
PeonyInJuly 回复 悄悄话 回复 'Fanreninus' 的评论 : 烦老师谦虚了。
本着认真负责的态度,俺再评论一下哈:
“她说:I was wondering if you could do me a favor. 一看就是高手,既然是高手:I was wondering why she was not offering her own English lessons.”
I was wondering if you could do me a favor. 用过去时was wondering,是委婉的请求,表示礼貌, 表示不强求。 而且区别于虚拟语态因为这里的请求是可以达到的。你说得对, 完全可以直接说:Can you do me a favor?
但是“I was wondering why she was not offering her own English lessons."里面的“was wondering"就没必要了, 因为这里的意思是真的“我纳闷。我想知道”, 应该用“I wonder why she..."
瞧, 我自己表达得比较乱。 That's why I cannot offer my English lessons. However, I would always love to add some comments to your lessons because you do such a great job organizing your thoughts. You make a great teacher, seriously.
Fanreninus 回复 悄悄话 https://www.phrasemix.com/collections/how-to-talk-about-the-weekend-in-english

和人家怎么谈周末活动的一些简单英文.
Fanreninus 回复 悄悄话 回复 'PeonyInJuly' 的评论 : 谢谢,很不错,很规范的英文,不像俺这杂牌英文:-)
PeonyInJuly 回复 悄悄话 先声明,俺可不属于什么“外语系女生”故事里的呀。 网络上贴个女的照片就真的是女滴么?烦老师的英语课深入浅出,读来风趣。 俺这个英语专业滴高材生(有这么自夸滴么?)都自愧不如。
现学现用:
现代时:I always read your English lessons.
过去时:I read your English lessons yesterday. (得,这里似乎用了一个搞特殊的动词哦。read 的过去时和现在时拼写一样,读音不一样滴。)
将来时: I will read your English lesson again tomorrow.
现代进行时:I am reading now.
过去进行时:I was reading the last lesson when my husband told me dinner was ready.
将来进行时:I will not be reading these lessons next week because I will be traveling.
可以下课了不,烦老师?
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